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Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 
Published May 15, 1012 

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TT is becoming more and more a matter of regret 
that a larger amount of systematic effort was not 
established in early years for the gathering and preser- 
vation of the folk-lore of the Hawaiians. The world 
is under lasting obligations to the late Judge Fornander, 
and to Dr. Rae before him, for their painstaking efforts 
to gather the history of this people and trace their 
origin and migrations ; but Fornander's work only has 
seen the light, Dr. Rae's manuscript having been acci- 
dentally destroyed by fire. 

The early attempts of Dibble and Pogue to gather 
history from Hawaiians themselves have preserved to 
native and foreign readers much that would probably 
otherwise have been lost. To the late Judge Andrews 
we are indebted for a very full grammar and dictionary 
of the language, as also for a valuable manuscript col- 
lection of meles and antiquarian literature that passed 
to the custody of the Board of Education. 

There were native historians in those days ; the 
newspaper articles of S. M. Kamakau, the earlier 
writings of David Malo, and the later contributions 
of G. W. Pilipo and others are but samples of a wealth 
of material, most of which has been lost forever to the 
world. From time to time Prof. W. D. Alexander, 


as also C. J. Lyons, has furnished interesting extracts 
from these and other hakus. 

The Rev. A. O. Forbes devoted some time and 
thought to the collecting of island folk-lore : and King 
Kalakaua took some pains in this line also, as evidenced 
by his volume of "Legends and Myths of Hawaii," 
edited by R. M. Daggett, though there is much therein 
that is wholly foreign to ancient Hawaiian customs 
and thought. No one of late years had a better oppor- 
tunity than Kalakaua toward collecting the meles^ kaaos, 
and traditions of his race ; and for purposes looking 
to this end there was established by law a Board of 
Genealogy, which had an existence of some four years, 
but nothing of permanent value resulted therefrom. 

Fornander's manuscript collection of meles, legends, 
and genealogies in the vernacular has fortunately be- 
come, by purchase, the property of the Hon. C. R. 
Bishop, which insures for posterity the result of one 
devoted scholar's efforts to rescue the ancient traditions 
that are gradually slipping away ; for the haku meles 
(bards) of Hawaii are gone. This fact, as also the 
Hawaiian Historical Society's desire to aid and stimu- 
late research into the history and traditions of this 
people, strengthens the hope that some one may yet 
arise to give us further insight into the legendary 
folk-lore of this interesting race. 

T. G. T. 

Honolulu, January i, 1907. 



N response to repeated requests, the compiler now 
presents in book form the series of legends that have 
been made a feature of "The Hawaiian Annual" for 
a number of years past. The series has been enriched 
by the addition of several tales, the famous shark legend 
having been furnished for this purpose from the papers 
of the Hawaiian Historical Society. 

The collection embraces contributions by the Rev. 
A. O. Forbes, Dr. N. B. Emerson, J. S. Emerson, 
Mrs. E. M. Nakuina, W. M. Gibson, Dr. C. M. 
Hyde, and others, all of whom are recognized author- 

T. G. T. 

Honolulu, January i, 1907. 



I. Legends Resembling Old Testament History 
Rev. C. M. Hyde, D.D. 

II. Exploits of Maui. Rev. A. 0. Forbes. 
I. Snaring the Sun. 
II. The Origin of Fire . 

III. Pele and the Deluge. Rev. A. 0. Forbes 

IV. Pele and Kahawali. From Ellis's "Tour of 

Hawaii " 

V. Hiku and Kawelu. J. S. Emerson 
Location of the Lua o Milu 

VI. Lonopuha ; or, Origin of the Art of Healing 
in Hawaii. Translated by Thos. G. Thrum 

VII. A Visit to the Spirit Land ; or, The Strange 
Experience of a Woman in Kona, Hawaii 
Mrs. E. N. Haley . . . 

VIII. Kapeepeekauila ; or, The Rocks of Kana 
Rev. A. O. Forbes .... 

IX. Kalelealuaka. Dr. N. B. Emerson 

X. Stories of the Menehunes : Hawaii the Original 
Home of the Brownies. Thos. G. Thrum 
Moke Manu's Account 
Pi's Watercourse . 
Laka's Adventure . 
Kekupua's Canoe . 
As Heiau Builders . 

XI. Kahalaopuna, Princess of Manoa. Mrs. E. M. 



3 1 




5 1 








XII. The Punahou Spring. Mrs. E. M. Nakuina. 133 

XIII. Oahunui. Mrs. E. M. Nakuina . .139 

XIV. Ahuula : A Legend of Kanikaniaula and the 

First Feather Cloak. Mrs. E. M. Nakuina. 147 

XV. Kaala and Kaaialii : A Legend of Lanai. W. 

M. Gibson . . . . . .156 

XVI. The Tomb of Puupehe : A Legend of Lanai. 

From " The Hawaiian Gazette " . .181 

XVII. Ai Kanaka : A Legend of Molokai. Rev. A. 

O.Forbes 186 

XVIII. Kaliuwaa. Scene of the Demigod Kama- 
puaa's Escape from Olopana. From " The 

Hawaiian Spectator" . . . .193 

XIX. Battle of the Owls. Jos. M. Poepoe . . 200 

XX. This Land is the Sea's. Traditional Ac- 
count of an Ancient Hawaiian Prophecy. 
Translated from Moke Manu by Thos. G. 
Thrum ....... 203 

XXI. Ku-ula, the Fish God of Hawaii. Translated 

from Moke Manu by M. K. Nakuina . 215 

XXII. Aiai, Son of Ku-ula. Part II of the Legend 
of Ku-ula, the Fish God of Hawaii. Trans- 
lated from Moke Manu hy M. K. Nakuina. 230 

XXIII. Kaneaukai : A Legend of Waialua. Thos. 

G. Thrum ...... 250 

XXIV. The Shark-man, Nanaue. Mrs. E. M. Nak- 

uina . . . . . . 255 

XXV. Fish Stories and Superstitions. Translated by 

M. K. Nakuina ..... 269 




Hawaiian Girl of the Old Regime 

A Lava Cascade ..... 

View in Wainiha Valley, Kauai 

Scene in Olokele Gulch, Makaweli, Kauai 

"The Deep Blue Palis of Koolau " 

Scene from the Road over Nuuanu Pali 

View at the Head of Manoa Valley, Oahu 

The Favorite Sport of Surf- Riding 

Hawaiian Arrayed in Feather Cloak and Helmet 

The Ceremony of the Hula 

The Hula Dance 

Kuumana, the Rain God of Kau 

A Grass House of the Olden Time 

Making Ready the Feast 

Hawaiian Fisherman Using the Throw-Net 

Coast Surf Scene .... 






1 1 2 

1 20 















REV. C. M. HYDE, D. D. 

TN the first volume of Judge Fornander's elaborate 
work on "The Polynesian Race" he has given 
some old Hawaiian legends which closely resemble 
the Old Testament history. How shall we account 
for such coincidences? 

Take, for instance, the Hawaiian account of the 
Creation. The Kane, Ku 3 and Lono: or, Sunlight, Sub- 
stance, and Sound,— these constituted a triad named 
Ku-Kaua-Kahi, or the Fundamental Supreme Unity. 
In worship the reverence due was expressed by such 
epithets as Hi-ka-po-loa, Oi-e, Most Excellent, etc. 
"These gods existed from eternity, from and before 
chaos, or, as the Hawaiian term expressed it, l mai ka 
po mai J (from the time of night, darkness, chaos). 
By an act of their will these gods dissipated or broke 
into pieces the existing, surrounding, all-containing po, 
night, or chaos. By this act light entered into space. 
They then created the heavens, three in number, as a 
place to dwell in; and the earth to be their footstool, 
he keehina honua a Kane. Next they created the sun, 



moon, stars, and a host of angels, or spirits — i kini 
akua — to minister to them. Last of all they created 
man as the model, or in the likeness of Kane. The 
body of the first man was made of red earth — lepo ula, 
or alaea — and the spittle of the gods — wai nao. His 
head was made of a whitish clay — ■palolo — which was 
brought from the four ends of the world by Lono. 
When the earth-image of Kane was ready, the three 
gods breathed into its nose, and called on it to rise, 
and it became a living being. Afterwards the first 
woman was created from one of the ribs — lalo 
puhaka — of the man while asleep, and these two were 
the progenitors of all mankind. They are called in 
the chants and in various legends by a large number 
of different names ; but the most common for the man 
was Kumuhonua, and for the woman Keolakuhonua 
[or Lalahonua] . 

cc Of the creation of animals these chants are silent; 
but from the pure tradition it may be inferred that the 
earth at the time of its creation or emergence from the 
watery chaos was stocked with vegetable and animal. 
The animals specially mentioned in the tradition as 
having been created by Kane were hogs (puaa), dogs 
(ilio), lizards or reptiles (moo). 

"Another legend of the series, that of Wela-ahi-lani, 
states that after Kane had destroyed the world by fire, 
on account of the wickedness of the people then liv- 
ing, he organized it as it now is, and created the first 
man and the first woman, with the assistance of Ku 
and Lono, nearly in the same manner as narrated in 
the former legend of Kumuhonua. In this legend the 


man is called Wela-ahi-lani, and the woman is called 

Of the primeval home, the original ancestral seat of 
mankind, Hawaiian traditions speak in highest praise. 
"It had a number of names of various meanings, 
though the most generally occurring, and said to be 
the oldest, was Kalana-i-hau-ola (Kalana with the 
life-giving dew). It was situated in a large country, 
or continent, variously called in the legends Kahiki- 
honua-kele, Kahiki-ku, Kapa-kapa-ua-a-Kane, Molo- 
lani. Among other names for the primary homestead, 
or paradise, are Pali-uli (the blue mountain), 
Aina-i-ka-kaupo-o-Kane (the land in the heart of 
Kane), Aina-wai-akua-a-Kane (the land of the divine 
water of Kane). The tradition says of Pali-uli, that it 
was a sacred, tabooed land ; that a man must be right- 
eous to attain it ; if faulty or sinful he will not get 
there ; if he looks behind he will not get there ; if 
he prefers his family he will not enter Pali-uli." 
"Among other adornments of the Polynesian Para- 
dise, the Kalana-i-hau-ola, there grew the Ulu kapu a 
Kane, the breadfruit tabooed for Kane, and the ohia 
hemoleky the sacred apple-tree. The priests of the 
olden time are said to have held that the tabooed 
fruits of these trees were in some manner connected 
with the trouble and death of Kumuhonua and Lala- 
honua, the first man and the first woman. Hence in 
the ancient chants he is called Kane-laa-uli, Kumu-uli, 
Kulu-ipo, the fallen chief, he who fell on account of the 
tree, or names of similar import." 

According to those legends of Kumuhonua and 


Wela-ahi-lani, " at the time when the gods created the 
stars, they also created a multitude of angels, or spirits 
(i kini akua), who were not created like men, but 
made from the spittle of the gods (i kuhaia), to be 
their servants or messengers. These spirits, or a num- 
ber of them, disobeyed and revolted, because they 
were denied the awa; which means that they were not 
permitted to be worshipped, awa being a sacrificial 
offering and sign of worship. These evil spirits did 
not prevail, however, but were conquered by Kane, 
and thrust down into uttermost darkness {jlalo loa i 
ka pd). The chief of these spirits was called by some 
Kanaloa, by others Milu, the ruler of Po; Akua ino; 
Kupu ino, the evil spirit. Other legends, however, 
state that the veritable and primordial lord of the 
Hawaiian inferno was called Manua. The inferno 
itself bore a number of names, such as Po-pau-ole, 
Po-kua-kini, Po-kini-kini, Po-papa-ia-owa, Po-ia-milu. 
Milu, according to those other legends, was a chief of 
superior wickedness on earth who was thrust down into 
Po, but who was really both inferior and posterior to 
Manua. This inferno, this Po, with many names, 
one of which remarkably enough was Ke-po-lua-ahi> the 
pit of fire, was not an entirely dark place. There was 
light of some kind and there was fire. The legends fur- 
ther tell us that when Kane, Ku, and Lono were creating 
the first man from the earth, Kanaloa was present, and 
in imitation of Kane, attempted to make another man 
out of the earth. When his clay model was ready, he 
called to it to become alive, but no life came to it. 
Then Kanaloa became very angry, and said to Kane, 


l \ will take your man, and he shall die,' and so it 
happened. Hence the first man got his other name 
Kumu-uli, which means a fallen chief, he 'Hi kahuli. 
. . . With the Hawaiians, Kanaloa is the personi- 
fied spirit of evil, the origin of death, the prince of 
Po, or chaos, and yet a revolted, disobedient spirit, 
who was conquered and punished by Kane. The in- 
troduction and worship of Kanaloa, as one of the 
great gods in the Hawaiian group, can be traced back 
only to the time of the immigration from the southern 
groups, some eight hundred years ago. In the more 
ancient chants he is never mentioned in conjunction 
with Kane, Ku, and Lono, and even in later Hawaiian 
mythology he never took precedence of Kane. The 
Hawaiian legend states that the oldest son of Kumu- 
honua, the first man, was called Laka, and that the 
next was called Ahu, and that Laka was a bad man; 
he killed his brother Ahu. 

"There are these different Hawaiian genealogies, 
going back with more or less agreement among them- 
selves to the first created man. The genealogy of 
Kumuhonua gives thirteen generations inclusive to 
Nuu, or Kahinalii, or the line of Laka, the oldest 
son of Kumuhonua. (The line of Seth from Adam 
to Noah counts ten generations.) The second gene- 
alogy, called that of Kumu-uli, was of greatest au- 
thority among the highest chiefs down to the latest 
times, and it was taboo to teach it to the common peo- 
ple. This genealogy counts fourteen generations from 
Huli-houna, the first man, to Nuu, or Nana-nuu, but 
inclusive, on the line of Laka. The third genealogy, 


which, properly speaking, is that of Paao, the high 
priest who came with Pili from Tahiti, about twenty- 
five generations ago, and was a reformer of the Hawaiian 
priesthood, and among whose descendants it has been 
preserved, counts only twelve generations from Ku- 
muhonua to Nuu, on the line of Kapili, youngest son 
of Kumuhonua." 

"In the Hawaiian group there are several legends 
of the Flood. One legend relates that in the time of 
Nuu, or Nana-nuu (also pronounced lana i that is, 
floating), the flood, Kaiakahina/ii, came upon the 
earth, and destroyed all living beings ; that Nuu, by 
command of his god, built a large vessel with a house 
on top of it, which was called and is referred to in 
chants as l He waa halau Alii o ka Moku,' the royal 
vessel, in which he and his family, consisting of his 
wife, Lilinoe, his three sons and their wives, were 
saved. When the flood subsided, Kane, Ku, and 
Lono entered the waa halau of Nuu, and told him to 
go out. He did so, and found himself on the top of 
Mauna Kea (the highest mountain on the island of 
Hawaii). He called a cave there after the name of his 
wife, and the cave remains there to this day — as the 
legend says in testimony of the fact. Other versions 
of the legend say that Nuu landed and dwelt in 
Kahiki-honua-kele, a large and extensive country." 
..." Nuu left the vessel in the evening of the day 
and took with him a pig, cocoanuts, and awa as an 
offering to the god Kane. As he looked up he saw 
the moon in the sky. He thought it was the god, 
saying to himself, 'You are Kane, no doubt, though 


you have transformed yourself to my sight.' So he 
worshipped the moon, and offered his offerings. 
Then Kane descended on the rainbow and spoke 
reprovingly to Nuu, but on account of the mistake 
Nuu escaped punishment, having asked pardon of 
Kane." . . . "Nuu's three sons were Nalu-akea, 
Nalu-hoo-hua, and Nalu-mana-mana. In the tenth 
generation from Nuu arose Lua-nuu, or the second 
Nuu, known also in the legend as Kane-hoa-lani, 
Kupule, and other names. The legend adds that by 
command of his god he was the first to introduce cir- 
cumcision to be practised among his descendants. He 
left his native home and moved a long way off until 
he reached a land called Honua-ilalo, 'the southern 
country.' Hence he got the name Lalo-kona, and 
his wife was called Honua-po-ilalo. He was the 
father of Ku-nawao by his slave-woman Ahu (O-ahu) 
and of Kalani-menehune by his wife, Mee-hewa. An- 
other says that the god Kane ordered Lua-nuu to go 
up on a mountain and perform a sacrifice there. Lua- 
nuu looked among the mountains of Kahiki-ku, but 
none of them appeared suitable for the purpose. Then 
Lua-nuu inquired of God where he might find a 
proper place. God replied to him : s Go travel to the 
eastward, and where you find a sharp-peaked hill pro- 
jecting precipitously into the ocean, that is the hill for 
the sacrifice.' Then Lua-nuu and his son, Kupulu- 
pulu-a-Nuu, and his servant, Pili-lua-nuu, started off 
in their boat to the eastward. In remembrance of this 
event the Hawaiians called the back of Kualoa Koo- 
lau; Oahu (after one of Lua-nuu's names), Kane-hoa- 


lani; and the smaller hills in front of it were named 
Kupu-pulu and Pili-lua-nuu. Lua-nuu is the tenth 
descendant from Nuu by both the oldest and the 
youngest of Nuu's sons. This oldest son is repre- 
sented to have been the progenitor of the Kanaka- 
maoliy the people living on the mainland of Kane 
{Aina kumupuaa a Kane): the youngest was the progen- 
itor of the white people (ka poe keokeo maoli). This 
Lua-nuu (like Abraham, the tenth from Noah, also 
like Abraham), through his grandson, Kini-lau-a- 
mano, became the ancestor of the twelve children of 
the latter, and the original founder of the Menehune 
people, from whom this legend makes the Polynesian 
family descend." 

The Rev. Sheldon Dibble, in his history of the 
Sandwich Islands, published at Lahainaluna, in 1843, 
gives a tradition which very much resembles the his- 
tory of Joseph. " Waikelenuiaiku was one of ten 
brethren who had one sister. They were all the 
children of one father, whose name was Waiku. Wai- 
kelenuiaiku was much beloved by his father, but his 
brethren hated him. On account of their hatred they 
carried him and cast him into a pit belonging to Hol- 
onaeole. The oldest brother had pity on him, and 
gave charge to Holonaeole to take good care of him. 
Waikelenuiaiku escaped and fled to a country over 
which reigned a king whose name was Kamohoalii. 
There he was thrown into a dark place, a pit under 
ground, in which many persons were confined for 
various crimes. Whilst confined in this dark place 
he told his companions to dream dreams and tell 


them to him. The night following four of the pris- 
oners had dreams. The first dreamed that he saw a 
ripe ohia (native apple), and his spirit ate it; the second 
dreamed that he saw a ripe banana, and his spirit ate 
it; the third dreamed that he saw a hog, and his spirit 
ate it ; and the fourth dreamed that he saw awa, 
pressed out the juice, and his spirit drank it. The 
first three dreams, pertaining to food, Waikelenuiaiku 
interpreted unfavorably, and told the dreamers they 
must prepare to die. The fourth dream, pertaining 
to drink, he interpreted to signify deliverance and life. 
The first three dreamers were slain according to the 
interpretation, and the fourth was delivered and saved. 
Afterward this last dreamer told Kamohoalii, the 
king of the land, how wonderful was the skill of Wai- 
kelenuiaiku in interpreting dreams, and the king sent 
and delivered him from prison and made him a prin- 
cipal chief in his kingdom." 

Judge Fornander alludes to this legend, giving the 
name, however, Aukelenui-a-Iku, and adding to it 
the account of the hero's journey to the place where 
the water of life was kept {ka-wai-ola-loa-a-Kane), his 
obtaining it and therewith resuscitating his brothers, 
who had been killed by drowning some years before. 
Another striking similarity is that furnished to Judge 
Fornander in the legend of Ke-alii-waha-nui: "He 
was king of the country called Honua-i-lalo. He 
oppressed the Menehune people. Their god Kane 
sent Kane-apua and Kaneloa, his elder brother, to 
bring the people away, and take them to the land 
which Kane had given them, and which was called 


Ka aina momona a Kane, or Ka one lauena a Kane, 
and also Ka aina i ka haupo a Kane. The people 
were then told to observe the four Ku days in the 
beginning of the month as Kapu-hoano (sacred or holy 
days), in remembrance of this event, because they 
thus arose (Ku) to depart from that land. Their offer- 
ings on the occasion were swine and goats." The nar- 
rator of the legend explains that formerly there were 
goats without horns, called malailua, on the slopes 
of Mauna Loa on Hawaii, and that they were found 
there up to the time of Kamehameha I. The 
legend further relates that after leaving the land 
of Honualalo, the people came to the Kai-ula-a-Kane 
(the Red Sea of Kane); that they were pursued by 
Ke-alii-waha-nui ; that Kane-apua and Kanaloa prayed 
to Lono, and finally reached the Aina lauena a 

"In the famous Hawaiian legend of Hiiaka-i-ka- 
poli-o-Pele, it is said that when Hiiaka went to the 
island of Kauai to recover and restore to life the body 
of Lohiau, the lover of her sister, Pele, she arrived at 
the foot of the Kalalau Mountain shortly before sun- 
set. Being told by her friends at Haena that there 
would not be daylight sufficient to climb the pali 
(precipice) and get the body out of the cave in which 
it was hidden, she prayed to her gods to keep the sun 
stationary {j ka muli o Hea) over the brook Hea, until 
she had accomplished her object. The prayer was 
heard, the mountain was climbed, the guardians of the 
cave vanquished, and the body recovered." 

A story of retarding the sun and making the day 


longer to accomplish his purpose is told of Maui-a- 
kalana, according to Dibble's history. 

Judge Fornander alludes to one other legend with 
incidents similar to the Old Testament history wherein 
"Na-ula-a-Maihea, an Oahu prophet, left Oahu for 
Kauai, was upset in his canoe, was swallowed by a 
whale, and thrown up alive on the beach at Wailua, 

Judge Fornander says that, when he first heard the 
legend of the two brother prophets delivering the 
Menehune people, "he was inclined to doubt its 
genuineness and to consider it as a paraphrase or adap- 
tation of the Biblical account by some semi-civilized 
or semi-Christianized Hawaiian, after the discovery of 
the group by Captain Cook. But a larger and better 
acquaintance with Hawaiian folk-lore has shown that 
though the details of the legend, as interpreted by the 
Christian Hawaiian from whom it was received, may 
possibly in some degree, and unconsciously to him, 
perhaps, have received a Biblical coloring, yet the main 
facts of the legend, with the identical names of persons 
and places, are referred to more or less distinctly in 
other legends of undoubted antiquity." And the Rev. 
Mr. Dibble, in his history, says of these Hawaiian 
legends, that "they were told to the missionaries before 
the Bible was translated into the Hawaiian tongue, and 
before the people knew much of sacred history. The 
native who acted as assistant in translating the history 
of Joseph was forcibly struck with its similarity to their 
ancient tradition. Neither is there the least room for 
supposing that the songs referred to are recent inven- 


tions. They can all be traced back for generations, 
and are known by various persons residing on different 
islands who have had no communication with each 
other. Some of them have their date in the reign 
of some ancient king, and others have existed time 
out of mind. It may also be added, that both their 
narrations and songs are known the best by the very 
oldest of the people, and those who never learned to 
read ; whose education and training were under the 
ancient system of heathenism." 

"Two hypotheses," says Judge Fornander, "may 
with some plausibility be suggested to account for this 
remarkable resemblance of folk-lore. One is, that 
during the time of the Spanish galleon trade, in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, between the 
Spanish Main and Manila, some shipwrecked people, 
Spaniards and Portuguese, had obtained sufficient 
influence to introduce these scraps of Bible history into 
the legendary lore of this people. . . . On this 
first hypothesis I remark that, if the shipwrecked 
foreigners were educated men, or only possessed of such 
Scriptural knowledge as was then imparted to the com- 
monality of laymen, it is morally impossible to conceive 
that a Spaniard of the sixteenth century should confine 
his instruction to some of the leading events of the 
Old Testament, and be totally silent upon the Chris- 
tian dispensation, and the cruciolatry, mariolatry, and 
hagiolatry of that day. And it is equally impossible 
to conceive that the Hawaiian listeners, chiefs, priests, 
or commoners, should have retained and incorporated 
so much of the former in their own folk-lore, and yet 


have utterly forgotten every item bearing upon the 

"The other hypothesis is, that at some remote 
period either a body of the scattered Israelites had 
arrived at these islands direct, or in Malaysia, before 
the exodus of 'the Polynesian family,' and thus im- 
parted a knowledge of their doctrines, of the early life 
of their ancestors, and of some of their peculiar cus- 
toms, and that having been absorbed by the people 
among whom they found a refuge, this is all that remains 
to attest their presence — intellectual tombstones over a 
lost and forgotten race, yet sufficient after twenty-six 
centuries of silence to solve in some measure the ethnic 
puzzle of the lost tribes of Israel. In regard to this 
second hypothesis, it is certainly more plausible and 
cannot be so curtly disposed of as the Spanish theory. 
... So far from being copied one from the other, 
they are in fact independent and original versions 
of a once common legend, or series of legends, held 
alike by Cushite, Semite, Turanian, and Aryan, up to 
a certain time, when the divergencies of national life 
and other causes brought other subjects peculiar to 
each other prominently in the foreground ; and that 
as these divergencies hardened into system and creed, 
that grand old heirloom of a common past became 
overlaid and colored by the peculiar social and religious 
atmosphere through which it has passed up to the 
surface of the present time. But besides this general 
reason for refusing to adopt the Israelitish theory, that 
the Polynesian legends were introduced by fugitive or 
emigrant Hebrews from the subverted kingdoms of 


Israel or Judah, there is the more special reason to be 
added that the organization and splendor of Solo- 
mon's empire, his temple, and his wisdom became pro- 
verbial among the nations of the East subsequent 
to his time ; on all these, the Polynesian legends are 
absolutely silent." 

In commenting on the legend of Hiiaka-i-ka-poli-o- 
Pele, Judge Fornander says: "If the Hebrew legend 
of Joshua or a Cushite version give rise to it, it only 
brings down the community of legends a little later in 
time. And so would the legend of JVaulu-a-Maihea, 
. . . unless the legend of Jonah, with which it corre- 
sponds in a measure, as well as the previous legend of 
Joshua and the sun, were Hebrew anachronisms com- 
piled and adapted in later times from long antecedent 
materials, of which the Polynesian references are but 
broken and distorted echoes, bits of legendary mosaics, 
displaced from their original surroundings and made 
to fit with later associations." 

In regard to the account of the Creation, he remarks 
that "the Hebrew legend infers that the god Elohim 
existed contemporaneously with and apart from the 
chaos. The Hawaiian legend makes the three great 
gods, Kane, Ku, and Lono, evolve themselves out of 
chaos. . . . The order of creation, according to Hawaiian 
folk-lore, was that after Heaven and earth had been 
separated, and the ocean had been stocked with its ani- 
mals, the stars were created, then the moon, then the 
sun." Alluding to the fact that the account in Gene- 
sis is truer to nature, Judge Fornander nevertheless 
propounds the inquiry whether this fact may not 


"indicate that the Hebrew text is a later emendation 
of an older but once common tradition" ? 

Highest antiquity is claimed for Hawaiian tradi- 
tions in regard to events subsequent to the creation of 
man. "In one of the sacrificial hymns of the Mar- 
quesans, when human victims were offered, frequent 
allusions were made to 'the red apples eaten in Naoau,' 
. . . and to the 'tabooed apples of Atea,' as the cause 
of death, wars, pestilence, famine, and other calamities, 
only to be averted or atoned for by the sacrifice of 
human victims. The close connection between the 
Hawaiian and the Marquesan legends indicates a 
common origin, and that origin can be no other than 
that from which the Chaldean and Hebrew legends of 
sacred trees, disobedience, and fall also sprang." In 
comparison of "the Hawaiian myth of Kanaloa as a 
fallen angel antagonistic to the great gods, as the 
spirit of evil and death in the world, the Hebrew 
legends are more vague and indefinite as to the exist- 
ence of an evil principle. The serpent of Genesis, 
the Satan of Job, the Hillel of Isaiah, the dragon of 
the Apocalypse — all point, however, to the same 
underlying idea that the first cause of sin, death, evil, 
and calamities, was to be found in disobedience and 
revolt from God. They appear as disconnected scenes 
of a once grand drama that in olden times riveted the 
attention of mankind, and of which, strange to say, 
the clearest synopsis and the most coherent recollec- 
tion are, so far, to be found in Polynesian traditions. 
It is probably in vain to inquire with whom the legend 
of an evil spirit and his operations in Heaven and on 


earth had its origin. Notwithstanding the apparent 
unity of design and remarkable coincidence in many 
points, yet the differences in coloring, detail, and 
presentation are too great to suppose the legend bor- 
rowed by one from either of the others. It probably 
descended to the Chaldeans, Polynesians, and He- 
brews alike, from a source or people anterior to them- 
selves, of whom history now is silent." 





TV/TAUI was the son of Hina-lau-ae and Hina, and 
they dwelt at a place called Makalia, above 
Kahakuloa, on West Maui. Now, his mother Hina 
made kapas. And as she spread them out to dry, 
the days were so short that she was put to great 
trouble and labor in hanging them out and taking 
them in day after day until they were dry. Maui, 
seeing this, was filled with pity for her, for the days 
were so short that, no sooner had she got her kapas 
all spread out to dry, than the Sun went down, and 
she had to take them in again. So he determined to 
make the Sun go slower. He first went to Wailohi, 
in Hamakua, on East Maui, to observe the motions 
of the Sun. There he saw that it rose toward Hana. 
He then went up on Haleakala, and saw that the Sun 
in its course came directly over that mountain. He 
then went home again, and after a few days went to a 
place called Paeloko, at Waihee. There he cut down 
all the cocoanut-trees, and gathered the fibre of the 
cocoanut husks in great quantity. This he manu- 
factured into strong cord. One Moemoe, seeing this, 

3 1 


said tauntingly to him: "Thou wilt never catch the 
Sun. Thou art an idle nobody." 

Maui answered: "When I conquer my enemy, and 
my desire is attained, I will be your death." So he 
went up Haleakala again, taking his cord with him. 
And when the Sun arose above where he was sta- 
tioned, he prepared a noose of the cord and, casting 
it, snared one of the Sun's larger beams and broke it 
off. And thus he snared and broke off, one after 
another, all the strong rays of the Sun. 

Then shouted he exultingly: "Thou art my cap- 
tive, and now I will kill thee for thy going so swiftly." 

And the Sun said: "Let me live, and thou shalt see 
me go more slowly hereafter. Behold, hast thou not 
broken off all my strong legs, and left me only the 
weak ones?" 

So the agreement was made, and Maui permitted 
the Sun to pursue its course, and from that time on it 
went more slowly ; and that is the reason why the 
days are longer at one season of the year than at 
another. It was this that gave the name to that 
mountain, which should properly be called Alehe-ka-la 
(sun snarer), and not Haleakala. 

When Maui returned from this exploit, he went to 
find Moemoe, who had reviled him. But that individ- 
ual was not at home. He went on in his pursuit till 
he came upon him at a place called Kawaiopilopilo, 
on the shore to the eastward of the black rock called 
Kekaa, north of Lahaina. Moemoe dodged him up 
hill and down, until at last Maui, growing wroth, 
leaped upon and slew the fugitive. And the dead 


body was transformed into a long rock, which is there 
to this day, by the side of the road. 


Maui and Hina dwelt together, and to them were 
born four sons, whose names were Maui-mua, Maui- 
hope, Maui-kiikii, and Maui-o-ka-lana. These four 
were fishermen. One morning, just as the edge 
of the Sun lifted itself up, Maui-mua roused his 
brethren to go fishing. So they launched their canoe 
from the beach at Kaupo, on the island of Maui, 
where they were dwelling, and proceeded to the fish- 
ing ground. Having arrived there, they were begin- 
ning to fish, when Maui-o-ka-lana saw the light of a 
fire on the shore they had left, and said to his breth- 
ren : " Behold, there is a fire burning. Whose can 
this fire be ?" 

And they answered: "Whose, indeed? Let us 
return to the shore, that we may get our food cooked; 
but first let us get some fish." 

So, after they had obtained some fish, they turned 
toward the shore; and when the canoe touched the 
beach Maui-mua leaped ashore and ran toward the spot 
where the fire had been burning. Now, the curly- 
tailed alae (mud-hens) were the keepers of the fire ; 
and when they saw him coming they scratched the fire 
out and flew away. Maui-mua was defeated, and 
returned to the house to his brethren. 

Then said they to him: "How about the fire?" 

"How, indeed ? " he answered. " When I got there, 
behold, there was no fire ; it was out. I supposed 


some man had the fire, and behold, it was not so ; the 
alae are the proprietors of the fire, and our bananas 
are all stolen." 

When they heard that, they were filled with anger, 
and decided not to go fishing again, but to wait for 
the next appearance of the fire. But after many days 
had passed without their seeing the fire, they went fish- 
ing again, and behold, there was the fire ! And so they 
were continually tantalized. Only when they were out 
fishing would the fire appear, and when they returned 
they could not find it. 

This was the way of it. The curly-tailed alae knew 
that Maui and Hina had only these four sons, and if 
any of them stayed on shore to watch the fire while 
the others were out in the canoe the alae knew it by 
counting those in the canoe, and would not light the 
fire. Only when they could count four men in the 
canoe would they light the fire. So Maui-mua thought 
it over, and said to his brethren : " To-morrow morning 
do you go fishing, and I will stay ashore. But do you 
take the calabash and dress it in kapa, and put it in my 
place in the canoe, and then go out to fish." 

They did so, and when they went out to fish the next 
morning, the alae counted and saw four figures in the 
canoe, and then they lit the fire and put the bananas 
on to roast. Before they were fully baked one of the 
alae cried out: "Our dish is cooked! Behold, Hina 
has a smart son." 

And with that, Maui-mua, who had stolen close to 
them unperceived, leaped forward, seized the curly- 
tailed alae and exclaimed : "Now I will kill you, you 


scamp of an alae! Behold, it is you who are keeping 
the fire from us. I will be the death of you for this." 
Then answered the alae : " If you kill me the secret 
dies with me, and you won't get the fire." As Maui- 
mua began to wring its neck, the alae again spoke, and 
said: "Let me live, and you shall have the fire." 
So Maui-mua said: "Tell me, where is the fire?" 
The alae replied: "It is in the leaf of the a-pe 
plant " ( Alocasia macrorrhizd). 

So, by the direction of the alae, Maui-mua began to 
rub the leaf-stalk of the ape-plant with a piece of stick, 
but the fire would not come. Again he asked : 
"Where is this fire that you are hiding from me?" 
The alae answered: "In a green stick." 
And he rubbed a green stick, but got no fire. So 
it went on, until finally the alae told him he would 
find it in a dry stick; and so, indeed, he did. But 
Maui-mua, in revenge for the conduct of the alae, after 
he had got the fire from the dry stick, said : " Now, 
there is one thing more to try." And he rubbed the 
top of the alae's head till it was red with blood, and 
the red spot remains there to this day. 




LL volcanic phenomena are associated in Hawai- 
ian legendary lore with the goddess Pele; and it 
is a somewhat curious fact that to the same celebrated 
personage is also attributed a great flood that occurred 
in ancient times. The legends of this flood are vari- 
ous, but mainly connected with the doings of Pele in 
this part of the Pacific Ocean. The story runs thus: 
Kahinalii was the mother of Pele ; Kanehoalani was 
her father ; and her two brothers were Kamohoalii and 
Kahuilaokalani. Pele was born in the land of Hapa- 
kuela, a far-distant land at the edge of the sky, toward 
the southwest. There she lived with her parents 
until she was grown up, when she married Wahialoa; 
and to these were born a daughter named Laka, and a 
son named Menehune. But after a time Pele's hus- 
band, Wahialoa, was enticed away from her by Pele- 
kumulani. The deserted Pele, being much displeased 
and troubled in mind on account of her husband, 
started on her travels in search of him, and came in 
the direction of the Hawaiian Islands. Now, at that 
time these islands were a vast waste. There was no 
sea, nor was there any fresh water. When Pele set 



out on her journey, her parents gave her the sea to go 
with her and bear her canoes onward. So she sailed 
forward, flood-borne by the sea, until she reached the 
land of Pakuela, and thence onward to the land of 
Kanaloa. From her head she poured forth the sea as 
she went, and her brothers composed the celebrated 
ancient mele : 

O the sea, the great sea! 
Forth bursts the sea: 
Behold, it bursts on Kanaloa! 

But the waters of the sea continued to rise until only 
the highest points of the great mountains, Haleakala, 
Maunakea, and Maunaloa, were visible ; all else was 
covered. Afterward the sea receded until it reached 
its present level. This event is called the Kai a Kahi- 
nalii (Sea of Kahinalii), because it was from Kahi- 
nalii, her mother, that Pele received the gift of the sea, 
and she herself only brought it to Hawaii. 

And from that time to this, Pele and all her family 
forsook their former land of Hapakuela and have 
dwelt in Hawaii-nei, Pele coming first and the rest 
following at a later time. 

On her first arrival at Hawaii-nei, Pele dwelt on the 
island of Kauai. From there she went to Kalaupapa, 1 
on the island of Molokai, and dwelt in the crater of 
Kauhako at that place ; thence she departed to Puu- 
laina, 2 near Lahainaluna, where she dug out that cra- 
ter. Afterward she moved still further to Haleakala, 

1 Now the Leper Settlement. 

2 The hill visible from the Lahaina anchorage to the north of Lahainaluna School, 
and near to it. 


where she stayed until she hollowed out that great 
crater; and finally she settled at Kilauea, on the island 
of Hawaii, where she has remained ever since. 

1 It is not a little remarkable that the progress of Pele, as stated in this tradition, 
agrees with geological observation in locating the earliest volcanic action in this group, 
on the island of Kauai, and the latest, on the island of Hawaii.—— Translator. 




N the reign of Kealiikukii, an ancient king of 
Hawaii, Kahawali, chief of Puna, and one of his 
favorite companions went one day to amuse them- 
selves with the holua (sled), on the sloping side of a 
hill, which is still called ka holua ana o Kahawali 
(Kahawali's sliding-place). Vast numbers of the 
people gathered at the bottom of the hill to witness 
the game, and a company of musicians and dancers 
repaired thither to add to the amusement of the 
spectators. The performers began their dance, and 
amidst the sound of drums and the songs of the 
musicians the sledding of Kahawali and his companion 
commenced. The hilarity of the occasion attracted 
the attention of Pele, the goddess of the volcano, 
who came down from Kilauea to witness the sport. 
Standing on the summit of the hill in the form of a 
woman, she challenged Kahawali to slide with her. 
He accepted the offer, and they set off together down 
the hill. Pele, less acquainted with the art of balanc- 
ing herself on the narrow sled than her rival, was 
beaten, and Kahawali was applauded by the spectators 
as he returned up the side of the hill. 



Before starting again, Pele asked him to give her 
his papa bolua, but he, supposing from her appearance 
that she was no more than a native woman, said: 
"Aolel (no!) Are you my wife, that you should obtain 
my sled?" And, as if impatient at being delayed, he 
adjusted his papa, ran a few yards to take a spring, 
and then, with this momentum and all his strength 
he threw himself upon it and shot down the hill. 

Pele, incensed at his answer, stamped her foot on 
the ground and an earthquake followed, which rent the 
hill in sunder. She called, and fire and liquid lava 
arose, and, assuming her supernatural form, with these 
irresistible ministers of vengeance, she followed down 
the hill. When Kahawali reached the bottom, he 
arose, and on looking behind saw Pele, accompanied 
by thunder and lightning, earthquake, and streams 
of burning lava, closely pursuing him. He took up 
his broad spear which he had stuck in the ground 
at the beginning of the game, and, accompanied by his 
friend, fled for his life. The musicians, dancers, and 
crowds of spectators were instantly overwhelmed by 
the fiery torrent, which, bearing on its foremost wave 
the enraged goddess, continued to pursue Kahawali 
and his companion. They ran till they came to an 
eminence called Puukea. Here Kahawali threw 
off his cloak of netted ki leaves and proceeded toward 
his house, which stood near the shore. He met his 
favorite pig and saluted it by touching noses, then ran 
to the house of his mother, who lived at Kukii, 
saluted her by touching noses, and said : "Aloha ino oe, 
eia ibonei paha oe e make ai, ke ai mainei Pele." (Com- 


passion great to you! Close here, perhaps, is your 
death ; Pele comes devouring.) Leaving her, he met 
his wife, Kanakawahine, and saluted her. The burning 
torrent approached, and she said: " Stay with me here, 
and let us die together." He said: "No; I go, I go." 
He then saluted his two children, Poupoulu and 
Kaohe, and said, "Ke ue net au ia olua." (I grieve for 
you two.) The lava rolled near, and he ran till 
a deep chasm arrested his progress. He laid down 
his spear and walked over on it in safety. His friend 
called out for his help ; he held out his spear over the 
chasm ; his companion took hold of it and he drew 
him securely over. By this time Pele was coming 
down the chasm with accelerated motion. He ran till 
he reached Kula. Here he met his sister, Koai, but 
had only time to say, '■'•Aloha oe!" (Alas for you!) and 
then ran on to the shore. His younger brother 
had just landed from his fishing-canoe, and had 
hastened to his house to provide for the safety of his 
family, when Kahawali arrived. He and his friend 
leaped into the canoe, and with his broad spear pad- 
dled out to sea. Pele, perceiving his escape, ran to 
the shore and hurled after him, with prodigious force, 
great stones and fragments of rock, which fell thickly 
around but did not strike his canoe. When he had 
paddled a short distance from the shore the kumukahi 
(east wind) sprung up. He fixed his broad spear 
upright in the canoe, that it might answer the double 
purpose of mast and sail, and by its aid he soon 
reached the island of Maui, where they rested one 
night and then proceeded to Lanai. The day follow- 


ing they moved on to Molokai, thence to Oahu, the 
abode of Kolonohailaau, his father, and Kanewa- 
hinekeaho, his sister, to whom he related his disastrous 
perils, and with whom he took up his perma- 
nent abode. 



NOT far from the summit of Hualalai, on the 
island of Hawaii, in the cave on the southern 
side of the ridge, lived Hina and her son, the kupua, 
or demigod, Hiku. All his life long as a child and 
a youth, Hiku had lived alone with his mother on 
this mountain summit, and had never once been 
permitted to descend to the plains below to see the 
abodes of men and to learn of their ways. From time 
to time, his quick ear had caught the sound of the dis- 
tant hula drum and the voices of the gay merrymakers. 
Often had he wished to see the fair forms of those who 
danced and sang in those far-off cocoanut groves. But 
his mother, more experienced in the ways of the world, 
had never given her consent. Now, at length, he felt 
that he was a man, and as the sounds of mirth arose 
on his ears, again he asked his mother to let him go 
for himself and mingle with the people on the shore. 
His mother, seeing that his mind was made up to go, 
reluctantly gave her consent and warned him not to 
stay too long, but to return in good time. So, taking 
in his hand his faithful arrow, Pua Ne> which he 
always carried, he started off. 



This arrow was a sort of talisman, possessed of mar- 
vellous powers, among which were the ability to answer 
his call and by its flight to direct his journey. 

Thus he descended over the rough clinker lava and 
through the groves of koa that cover the southwestern 
flank of the mountain, until, nearing its base, he stood 
on a distant hill; and consulting his arrow, he shot it 
far into the air, watching its bird-like flight until it 
struck on a distant hill above Kailua. To this hill he 
rapidly directed his steps, and, picking up his arrow in 
due time, he again shot it into the air. The second 
flight landed the arrow near the coast of Holualoa, 
some six or eight miles south of Kailua. It struck on a 
barren waste ofpahoehoe, or lava rock, beside the water- 
hole of Waikalai, known also as the Wai a Hiku 
(Water of Hiku), where to this day all the people 
of that vicinity go to get their water for man and 

Here he quenched his thirst, and nearing the village 
of Holualoa, again shot the arrow, which, instinct with 
life, entered the courtyard of the alii, or chief, of Kona, 
and from among the women who were there singled 
out the fair princess Kawelu, and landed at her feet. 
Seeing the noble bearing of Hiku as he approached to 
claim his arrow, she stealthily hid it and challenged him 
to find it. Then Hiku called to the arrow, "Pua ne! 
Pua ne!" and the arrow replied, "Ne!" thus revealing 
its hiding-place. 

This exploit with the arrow and the remarkable 
grace and personal beauty of the yotfng man quite won 
the heart of the princess, and she was soon possessed 


by a strong passion for him, and determined to make 
him her husband. 

With her wily arts she detained him for several days 
at her home, and when at last he was about to start for 
the mountain, she shut him up in the house and thus 
detained him by force. But the words of his mother, 
warning him not to remain too long, came to his mind, 
and he determined to break away from his prison. 
So he climbed up to the roof, and removing a portion 
of the thatch, made his escape. 

When his flight was discovered by Kawelu, the in- 
fatuated girl was distracted with grief. Refusing to be 
comforted, she tasted no food, and ere many days had 
passed was quite dead. Messengers were despatched 
who brought back the unhappy Hiku, author of all 
this sorrow. Bitterly he wept over the corpse of his 
beloved, but it was now too late; the spirit had 
departed to the nether world, ruled over by Milu. And 
now, stung by the reproaches of her kindred and friends 
for his desertion, and urged on by his real love for the fair 
one, he resolved to attempt the perilous descent into the 
nether world and, if possible, to bring her spirit back. 

With the assistance of her friends, he collected from 
the mountain slope a great quantity of the kowali, or 
convolvulus vine. He also prepared a hollow cocoa- 
nut shell, splitting it into two closely fitting parts. 
Then anointing himself with a mixture of rancid cocoa- 
nut and kukui oil, which gave him a very strong 
corpse-like odor, he started with his companions in 
the well-loaded canoes for a point in the sea where 
the sky comes down to meet the water. 


Arrived at the spot, he directed his comrades to 
lower him into the abyss called by the Hawaiians the 
Lua o Milu. Taking with him his cocoanut-shell and 
seating himself astride of the cross-stick of the swing, 
or kowali, he was quickly lowered down by the long 
rope of kowali vines held by his friends in the canoe 

Soon he entered the great cavern where the shades 
of the departed were gathered together. As he came 
among them, their curiosity was aroused to learn who 
he was. And he heard many remarks, such as "Whew! 
what an odor this corpse emits!" "He must have 
been long dead." He had rather overdone the matter 
of the rancid oil. Even Milu himself, as he sat on the 
bank watching the crowd, was completely deceived by 
the stratagem, for otherwise he never would have- 
permitted this bold descent of a living man into his 
gloomy abode. 

The Hawaiian swing, it should be remarked, unlike 
ours, has but one rope supporting the cross-stick on 
which the person is seated. Hiku and his swing 
attracted considerable attention from the lookers-on. 
One shade in particular watched him most intently; it 
was his sweetheart, Kawelu. A mutual recognition 
took place, and with the permission of Milu she darted 
up to him and swung with him on the kowali. But 
even she had to avert her face on account of his corpse- 
like odor. As they were enjoying together this favor- 
ite Hawaiian pastime of lele kowali, by a preconcerted 
signal the friends above were informed of the success 
of his ruse and were now rapidly drawing them up. 


At first she was too much absorbed in the sport to 
notice this. When at length her attention was aroused 
by seeing the great distance of those beneath her, like 
a butterfly she was about to flit away, when the crafty 
Hiku, who was ever on the alert, clapped the cocoanut- 
shells together, imprisoning her within them, and was 
then quickly drawn up to the canoes above. 

With their precious burden, they returned to the 
shores of Holualoa, where Hiku landed and at once 
repaired to the house where still lay the body of his 
beloved. Kneeling by its side, he made a hole in the 
great toe of the left foot, into which with great diffi- 
culty he forced the reluctant spirit, and in spite of its 
desperate struggles he tied up the wound so that it 
could not escape from the cold, clammy flesh in which 
it was now imprisoned. Then he began to lomilomi^ 
or rub and chafe the foot, working the spirit further 
and further up the limb. 

Gradually, as the heart was reached, the blood began 
once more to flow through the body, the chest began 
gently to heave with the breath of life, and soon the 
spirit gazed out through the eyes. Kawelu was now 
restored to consciousness, and seeing her beloved 
Hiku bending tenderly over her, she opened her 
lips and said: "How could you be so cruel as to 
leave me?" 

All remembrance of the Lua o Milu and of her 
meeting him there had disappeared, and she took up 
the thread of consciousness just where she had left it a 
few days before at death. Great joy filled the hearts 
of the people of Holualoa as they welcomed back to 


their midst the fair Kawelu and the hero, Hiku, from 
whom she was no more to be separated. 


In the myth of Hiku and Kawelu, the entrance to 
the Lua o Milu is placed out to sea opposite Holua- 
loa and a few miles south of Kailua. But the more 
usual account of the natives is, that it was situated at 
the mouth of the great valley of Waipio, in a place 
called Keoni, where the sands have long since covered 
up and concealed from view this passage from the 
upper to the nether world. 

Every year, so it is told, the procession of ghosts 
called by the natives Oio, marches in solemn state 
down the Mahiki road, and at this point enters the 
Lua oMilu. A man, recently living in Waimea, of 
the best reputation for veracity, stated that about 
thirty or more years ago, he actually saw this ghostly 
company. He was walking up this road in the eve- 
ning, when he saw at a distance the Oio appear, and 
knowing that should they encounter him his death 
would be inevitable, he discreetly hid himself behind 
a tree and, trembling with fear, gazed in silence at the 
dread spectacle. There was Kamehameha, the con- 
queror, with all his chiefs and warriors in military 
array, thousands of heroes who had won renown in 
the olden time. Though all were silent as the grave, 
they kept perfect step as they marched along, and 
passing through the woods down to Waipio, disap- 
peared from his view. 


In connection with the foregoing, Professor W. D. 
Alexander kindly contributes the following: 

"The valley of Waipio is a place frequently cele- 
brated in the songs and traditions of Hawaii, as hav- 
ing been the abode of Akea and Milu, the first kings 
of the island. 

"Some said that the souls of the departed went to 
the Po (place of night), and were annihilated or eaten 
by the gods there. Others said that some went to the 
regions of Akea and Milu. Akea (Wakea), they said, 
was the first king of Hawaii. At the expiration of 
his reign, which terminated with his life at Waipio, 
where we then were, he descended to a region far 
below, called Kapapahanaumoku (the island bearing 
rock or stratum), and founded a kingdom there. 
Milu, who was his successor, and reigned in Hama- 
kua, descended, when he died, to Akea and shared 
the government of the place with him. Their land is 
a place of darkness; their food lizards and butterflies. 
There are several streams of water, of which they 
drink, and some said that there were large kahilis 
and wide-spreading kou trees, beneath which they 
reclined." 1 

"They had some very indistinct notion of a future 
state of happiness and of misery. They said that, 
after death, the ghost went first to the region of 
Wakea, the name of their first reputed progenitor, 
and if it had observed the religious rites and cere- 
monies, was entertained and allowed to remain there. 
That was a place of houses, comforts, and pleasures. 

1 Ellis's "Polynesian Researches," pp. 365-7. 


If the soul had failed to be religious, it found no one 
there to entertain it, and was forced to take a desper- 
ate leap into a place of misery below, called Milu. 

"There were several precipices, from the verge of 
which the unhappy ghosts were supposed to take the 
leap into the region of woe; three in particular, one at 
the northern extremity of Hawaii, one at the western 
termination of Maui, and the third at the northern 
point of Oahu." 1 

Near the northwest point of Oahu is a rock called 
Leina Kauhane, where the souls of the dead descended 
into Hades. In New Zealand the same term,"Reinga" 
(the leaping place), is applied to the North Cape. The 
Marquesans have a similar belief in regard to the north- 
ermost island of their group, and apply the same term, 
"Reinga," to their Avernus. 

1 Dibble's History, p. 99. 




|P\URING the time that Milu was residing at 
"" Waipio, Hawaii, the year of which is unknown, 
there came to these shores a number of people, with 
their wives, from that vague foreign land, Kahiki. 
But they were all of godly kind {ano akua nae)> it is 
said, and drew attention as they journeyed from place 
to place. They arrived first at Niihau, and from 
there they travelled through all the islands. At 
Hawaii they landed at the south side, thence to Puna, 
Hilo, and settled at Kukuihaele, Hamakua, just 
above Waipio. 

On every island they visited there appeared various 
diseases, and many deaths resulted, so that it was said 
this was their doings, among the chiefs and people. 
The diseases that followed in their train were chills 3 
fevers, headache, parity and so on. 

These are the names of some of these people: 
Kaalaenuiahina, Kahuilaokalani, Kaneikaulanaula, be- 
sides others. They brought death, but one Kama- 
kanuiahailono followed after them with healing powers. 
This was perhaps the origin of sickness and the art of 
healing with medicines in Hawaii. 

5 1 


As has been said, diseases settled on the different 
islands like an epidemic, and the practice of medicine 
ensued, for Kamakanuiahailono followed them in their 
journeyings. He arrived at Kau, stopping at Kiolakaa, 
on the west side of Waiohinu, where a great multitude 
of people were residing, and Lono was their chief. 
The stranger sat on a certain hill, where many of the 
people visited him, for the reason that he was a new- 
comer, a custom that is continued to this day. While 
there he noticed the redness of skin of a certain one 
of them, and remarked, "Oh, the redness of skin of 
that man !" 

The people replied, "Oh, that is Lono, the chief 
of this land, and he is a farmer." 

He again spoke, asserting that his sickness was very 
great; for through the redness of the skin he knew him 
to be a sick man. 

They again replied that he was a healthy man, "but 
you consider him very sick." He then left the resi- 
dents and set out on his journey. 

Some of those who heard his remarks ran and told 
the chief the strange words, "that he was a very sick 
man." On hearing this, Lono raised up his oo (dig- 
ger) and said, "Here I am, without any sign of disease, 
and yet I am sick." And as he brought down his oo 
with considerable force, it struck his foot and pierced 
it through, causing the blood to flow freely, so that he 
fell and fainted away. At this, one of the men seized 
a pig and ran after the stranger, who, hearing the pig 
squealing, looked behind him and saw the man run- 
ning with it ; and as he neared him he dropped it 


before him, and told him of Lono's misfortune. Kama- 
kanuiahailono then returned, gathering on the way the 
young popolo seeds and its tender leaves in his garment 
(kihei). When he arrived at the place where the 
wounded man was lying he asked for some salt, which 
he took and pounded together with the popolo and 
placed it with a cocoanut covering on the wound. 
From then till night the flowing of the blood ceased. 
After two or three weeks had elapsed he again took 
his departure. 

While he was leisurely journeying, some one breath- 
ing heavily approached him in the rear, and> turning 
around, there was the chief, and he asked him : " What 
is it, Lono, and where are you going? " 

Lono replied, "You healed me; therefore, as soon 
as you had departed I immediately consulted with my 
successors, and have resigned my offices to them, so 
that they will have control over all. As for myself, 
I followed after you, that you might teach me the art 
of healing." 

The kahuna lapaau (medical priest) then said, "Open 
your mouth." When Lono opened his mouth, the 
kahuna spat into it, 1 by which he would become pro- 
ficient in the calling he had chosen, and in which he 
eventually became, in fact, very skilful. 

As they travelled, he instructed Lono (on account 
of the accident to his foot he was called Lonopuha) in 
the various diseases, and the different medicines for the 
proper treatment of each. They journeyed through 
Kau, Puna, and Hilo, thence onward to Hamakua as 

1 An initiatory act, as in the priesthood. 


far as Kukuihaele. Prior to their arrival there, Kama- 
kanuiahailono said to Lonopuha, "It is better that we 
reside apart, lest your healing practice do not succeed; 
but you settle elsewhere, so as to gain recognition from 
your own skill." 

For this reason, Lonopuha went on farther and 
located in Waimanu, and there practised the art of 
healing. On account of his labors here, he became 
famous as a skilful healer, which fame Kamakanuia- 
hailono and others heard of at Kukuihaele; but he 
never revealed to Kaalaenuiahina ma (company) of his 
teaching of Lonopuha, through which he became cele- 
brated. It so happened that Kaalaenuiahina ma were 
seeking an occasion to cause Milu's death, and he was 
becoming sickly through their evil efforts. 

When Milu heard of the fame of Lonopuha as a 
skilful healer, because of those who were afflicted with 
disease and would have died but for his treatment, he 
sent his messenger after him. On arriving at Milu's 
house, Lonopuha examined and felt of him, and then 
said, "You will have no sickness, provided you be 
obedient to my teachings." He then exercised his 
art, and under his medical treatment Milu recovered. 

Lonopuha then said to him: "I have treated you, 
and you are well of the internal ailments you suffered 
under, and only that from without remains. Now, you 
must build a house of leaves and dwell therein in 
quietness for a few weeks, to recuperate." These 
houses are called pipipi, such being the place to which 
invalids are moved for convalescent treatment unless 
something unforeseen should occur. 


Upon Milu's removal thereto, Lonopuha advised 
him as follows : "O King! you are to dwell in this 
house according to the length of time directed, in per- 
fect quietness; and should the excitement of sports with 
attendant loud cheering prevail here, I warn you against 
these as omens of evil for your death; and I advise you 
not to loosen the ti leaves of your house to peep out 
to see the cause, for on the very day you do so, that 
day you will perish." 

Some two weeks had scarcely passed since the King 
had been confined in accordance with the kahuna's 
instructions, when noises from various directions in 
proximity to the King's dwelling were heard, but he 
regarded the advice of the priest all that day. The 
cause of the commotion was the appearance of two 
birds playing in the air, which so excited the people 
that they kept cheering them all that day. 

Three weeks had almost passed when loud cheering 
was again heard in Waipio, caused by a large bird 
decorated with very beautiful feathers, which flew out 
from the clouds and soared proudly over the palis 
(precipices) of Koaekea and Kaholokuaiwa, and poised 
gracefully over the people; therefore, they cheered as 
they pursued it here and there. Milu was much wor- 
ried thereby, and became so impatient that he could no 
longer regard the priest's caution; so he lifted some of 
the ti leaves of his house to look out at the bird, when 
instantly it made a thrust at him, striking him under 
the armpit, whereby his life was taken and he was dead 
(Jilo ai kona ola a make iho Id). 

The priest saw the bird flying with the liver of Milu; 


therefore, he followed after it. When it saw that it was 
pursued, it immediately entered into a sunken rock 
just above the base of the precipice of Koaekea. As 
he reached the place, the blood was spattered around 
where the bird had entered. Taking a piece of gar- 
ment (pahoola), he soaked it with the blood and returned 
and placed it in the opening in the body of the dead 
King and poured healing medicine on the wound, 
whereby Milu recovered. And the place where the 
bird entered with Milu's liver has ever since been 
called Keakeomilu (the liver of Milu). 

A long while afterward, when this death of the King 
was as nothing (i mea ole), and he recovered as for- 
merly, the priest refrained not from warning him, say- 
ing: "You have escaped from this death; there remains 
for you one other." 

After Milu became convalescent from his recent 
serious experience, a few months perhaps had elapsed, 
when the surf at Waipio became very high and was 
breaking heavily on the beach. This naturally caused 
much commotion and excitement among the people, 
as the numerous surf-riders, participating in the sport, 
would land upon the beach on their surf-boards. Con- 
tinuous cheering prevailed, and the hilarity rendered 
Milu so impatient at the restraint put upon him by the 
priest that he forsook his wise counsel and joined in 
the exhilarating sport. 

Seizing a surf-board he swam out some distance to 
the selected spot for suitable surfs. Here he let the 
first and second combers pass him; but watching his 
opportunity he started with the momentum of the 


heavier third comber, catching the crest just right. 
Quartering on the rear of his board, he rode in with 
majestic swiftness, and landed nicely on the beach 
amid the cheers and shouts of the people. He then 
repeated the venture and was riding in as successfully, 
when, in a moment of careless abandon, at the place 
where the surfs finish as they break on the beach, he 
was thrust under and suddenly disappeared, while the 
surf-board flew from under and was thrown violently 
upon the shore. The people in amazement beheld 
the event, and wildly exclaimed : "Alas! Milu is dead! 
Milu is dead!" With sad wonderment they searched 
and watched in vain for his body. Thus was seen the 
result of repeated disobedience. 






TT^ALIMA had been sick for many weeks, and at last 
died. Her friends gathered around her with loud 
cries of grief, and with many expressions of affection 
and sorrow at their loss they prepared her body for its 

The grave was dug, and when everything was ready 
for the last rites and sad act, husband and friends came 
to take a final look at the rigid form and ashen face 
before it was laid away forever in the ground. The 
old mother sat on the mat-covered ground beside her 
child, brushing away the intrusive flies with a piece of 
cocoanut-leaf, and wiping away the tears that slowly 
rolled down her cheeks. Now and then she would 
break into a low, heart-rending wail, and tell in a sob- 
choked, broken voice, how good this her child had 
always been to her, how her husband loved her, and 
how her children would never have any one to take her 
place. "Oh, why," she cried, "did the gods leave 
me? I am old and heavy with years; my back is bent 
and my eyes are getting dark. I cannot work, and am 
too old and weak to enjoy fishing in the sea, or danc- 



ing and feasting under the trees. But this my child 
loved all these things, and was so happy. Why is she 
taken and I, so useless, left?" And again that mourn- 
ful, sob-choked wail broke on the still air, and was 
borne out to the friends gathered under the trees 
before the door, and was taken up and repeated until 
the hardest heart would have softened and melted at 
the sound. As they sat around on the mats looking 
at their dead and listening to the old mother, suddenly 
Kalima moved, took a long breath, and opened her 
eyes. They were frightened at the miracle, but so 
happy to have her back again among them. 

The old mother raised her hands and eyes to 
heaven and, with rapt faith on her brown, wrinkled 
face, exclaimed: "The gods have let her come back! 
How they must love her!" 

Mother, husband, and friends gathered around 
and rubbed her hands and feet, and did what they 
could for her comfort. In a- few minutes she revived 
enough to say, " I have something strange to tell 

Several days passed before she was strong enough 
to say more ; then calling her relatives and friends 
about her, she told them the following weird and 
strange story : 

"I died, as you know. I seemed to leave my body 
and stand beside it, looking down on what was me. 
The me that was standing there looked like the form 
I was looking at, only, I was alive and the other was 
dead. I gazed at my body for a few minutes, then 
turned and walked away. I left the house and village, 


and walked on and on to the next village, and there I 
found crowds of people, — Oh, so many people! The 
place which I knew as a small village of a few houses 
was a very large place, with hundreds of houses and 
thousands of men, women, and children. Some of 
them I knew and they spoke to me, — although that 
seemed strange, for I knew they were dead, — but 
nearly all were strangers. They were all so happy! 
They seemed not to have a care ; nothing to trouble 
them. Joy was in every face, and happy laughter 
and bright, loving words were on every tongue. 

"I left that village and walked on to the next. I 
was not tired, for it seemed no trouble to walk. It 
was the same there ; thousands of people, and every 
one so joyous and happy. Some of these I knew. 
I spoke to a few people, then went on again. I 
seemed to be on my way to the volcano, — to Pele's 
pit, — and could not stop, much as I wanted to do so. 

"All along the road were houses and people, where 
I had never known any one to live. Every bit 
of good ground had many houses, and many, many 
happy people on it. I felt so full of joy, too, that 
my heart sang within me, and I was glad to be 

"In time I came to South Point, and there, too, 
was a great crowd of people. The barren point was a 
great village. I was greeted with happy alohas, then 
passed on. All through Kau it was the same, and I 
felt happier every minute. At last I reached the vol- 
cano. There were some people there, but not so 
many as at other places. They, too, were happy like 


the others, but they said, ' You must go back to 
your body. You are not to die yet.' 

"I did not want to go back. I begged and 
prayed to be allowed to stay with them, but they said, 
f No, you must go back; and if you do not go will- 
ingly, we will make you go.' 

"I cried and tried to stay, but they drove me 
back, even beating me when I stopped and would not 
go on. So I was driven over the road I had come, 
back through all those happy people. They were 
still joyous and happy, but when they saw that I was 
not allowed to stay, they turned on me and helped 
drive me, too. 

" Over the sixty miles I went, weeping, followed 
by those cruel people, till I reached my home and 
stood by my body again. I looked at it and hated 
it. Was that my body? What a horrid, loathsome 
thing it was to me now, since I had seen so many 
beautiful, happy creatures! Must I go and live in 
that thing again? No, I would not go into it; I re- 
belled and cried for mercy. 

"'You must go into it; we will make you!' said 
my tormentors. They took me and pushed me head 
foremost into the big toe. 

"I struggled and fought, but could not help my- 
self. They pushed and beat me again, when I tried 
for the last time to escape. When I passed the waist, 
I seemed to know it was of no use to struggle any 
more, so went the rest of the way myself. Then my 
body came to life again, and I opened my eyes. 

"But I wish I could have stayed with those happy 


people. It was cruel to make me come back. My 
other body was so beautiful, and I was so happy, so 
happy! " 





/"\N the northern side of the island of Molokai, 
^-^ commencing at the eastern end and stretching 
along a distance of about twenty miles, the coast is a 
sheer precipice of black rock varying in height from 
eight hundred to two thousand feet. The only interrup- 
tions to the continuity of this vast sea wall are formed 
by the four romantic valleys of Pelekunu, Puaahaunui, 
Wailau, and Waikolu. Between the valleys of Pele- 
kunu and Waikolu, juts out the bold, sharp headland 
of Haupu, forming the dividing ridge between them, 
and reminding one somewhat of an axe-head turned 
edge upward. Directly in a line with this headland, 
thirty or forty rods out in the ocean, arise abruptly 
from the deep blue waters the rocks of Haupu, three 
or four sharp, needle-like points of rock varying from 
twenty to one hundred feet in height. This is the 
spot associated with the legend of Kapeepeekauila, and 
these rocks stand like grim sentinels on duty at the 
eastern limit of what is now known as the settlement 
of Kalawao. The legend runs as follows : 

Keahole was the father, Hiiaka-noholae was the 



mother, and Kapeepeekauila was the son. This 
Kapeepeekauila was a hairy man, and dwelt on the 
ridge of Haupu. 

Once on a time Hakalanileo and his wife Hina, 
the mother of Kana, came and dwelt in the valley of 
Pelekunu, on the eastern side of the ridge of Haupu. 

Kapeepeekauila, hearing of the arrival of Hina, 
the beautiful daughter of Kalahiki, sent his children 
to fetch her. They went and said to Hina, " Our 
royal father desires you as his wife, and we have come 
for you." 

"Desires me for what?" said she. 

"Desires you for a wife," said they. 

This announcement pleased the beautiful daughter 
of Kalahiki, and she replied, " Return to your royal 
father and tell him he shall be the husband and I will 
be the wife." 

When this message was delivered to Kapeepeekau- 
ila, he immediately sent a messenger to the other side 
of the island to summon all the people from Keone- 
kuina to Kalamaula ; for we have already seen that he 
was a hairy man, and it was necessary that this blem- 
ish should be removed. Accordingly, when the peo- 
ple had all arrived, Kapeepeekauila laid himself down 
and they fell to work until the hairs were all plucked 
out. He then took Hina to wife, and they two dwelt 
together on the top of Haupu. 

Poor Hakalanileo, the husband of Hina, mourned 
the loss of his companion of the long nights of winter 
and the shower-sprinkled nights of summer. Neither 
could he regain possession of her, for the ridge of 


Haupu grew till it reached the heavens. Fie mourned 
and rolled himself in the dust in agony, and crossed 
his hands behind his back. He went from place to 
place in search of some powerful person who should 
be able to restore to him his wife. In his wanderings, 
the first person to whom he applied was Kamalala- 
walu, celebrated for strength and courage. This man, 
seeing his doleful plight, asked, " Why these tears, O 
my father ? " 

Hakalanileo replied, " Thy mother is lost." 

"Lost to whom? " 

"Lost to Kapeepee." 

"What Kapeepee?" 

" Kapeepee-kauila." 

"What Kauila?" 

" Kauila, the dauntless, of Haupu." 

"Then, O father, thou wilt not recover thy wife. 
Our stick may strike ; it will but hit the dust at his 
feet. His stick, when it strikes back, will hit the 
head. Behold, measureless is the height of Haupu." 

Now, this Kamalalawalu was celebrated for his 
strength in throwing stones. Of himself, one side was 
stone, and the other flesh. As a test he seized 
a large stone and threw it upwards. It rose till it hit 
the sky and then fell back to earth again. As it 
came down, he turned his stony side toward it, and 
the collision made his side rattle. Hakalanileo looked 
on and sadly said, " Not strong enough." 

On he went, beating his breast in his grief, till he 
came to the celebrated Niuloihiki. Question and 
answer passed between them, as in the former case, but 


Niuloihiki replied, "It is hopeless; behold, measure- 
less is the height of Haupu." 

Again he prosecuted his search till he met the third 
man of fame, whose name was Kaulu. Question and 
answer passed, as before, and Kaulu, to show his 
strength, seized a river and held it fast in its course. 
But Hakalanileo mournfully said, " Not strong 

Pursuing his way with streaming eyes, he came to 
the fourth hero, Lonokaeho by name. As in the 
former cases, so in this, he received no satisfac- 
tion. These four were all he knew of who were fore- 
most in prowess, and all four had failed him. It was 
the end, and he turned sadly toward the mountain 
forest, to return to his home. 

Meantime, the rumor had reached the ears of 
Niheu, surnamed "the Rogue." Some one told him 
a father had passed along searching for some one able 
to recover him his wife. 

"Where is this father of mine?" inquired Niheu. 

"He has gone inland," was the reply. 

"I'll overtake him; he won't escape me," said 
Niheu. So he went after the old man, kicking over 
the trees that came in his way. The old man had 
gone on till he was tired and faint, when Niheu over- 
took him and brought him back to his house. Then 
Niheu asked him, "What made you go on without 
coming to the house of Niheu ? " 

"What, indeed," answered the old man; "as though 
I were not seeking to recover thy mother, who is 


Then came question and answer, as in former cases, 
and Niheu said, " I fear thou wilt not recover thy 
wife, O my father. But let us go inland to the foster 
son of Uli." So they went. But Niheu ran on ahead 
and told Kana, the foster son of Uli: " Behold, here 
comes Hakalanileo, bereft of his wife. We are all 

"Where is he?" inquired Kana. 

" Here he is, just arrived." 

Kana looked forth, and Hakalanileo recoiled with 
fear at the blazing of his eyes. 

Then spoke Niheu: " Why could you not wait 
before looking at our father ? Behold, you have fright- 
ened him, and he has run back." 

On this, Kana, remaining yet in the house, stretched 
forth his hand, and, grasping the old man in the 
distance, brought him back and sat him on his lap. 
Then Kana wept. And the impudent Niheu said, 
" Now you are crying; look out for the old man, or he 
will get water-soaked." 

But Kana ordered Niheu to bestir himself and light 
a fire, for the tears of Kana were as the big dropping 
rains of winter, soaking the plain. And Kana said to 
the old man, " Now, dry yourself by the fire, and when 
you are warm, tell your story." 

The old man obeyed, and when he was warm 
enough, told the story of his grief. Then said Kana, 
"Almost spent are my years ; I am only waiting for 
death, and behold I have at last found a foeman 
worthy of my prowess." 

Kana immediately espoused the cause of Hakalani- 


leo, and ordered his younger brother, Niheu, to con- 
struct a canoe for the voyage. Poor Niheu worked 
and toiled without success until, in despair, he ex- 
claimed, upbraidingly, "Thy work is not work; it is 
slavery. There thou dwellest at thy ease in thy retreat, 
while with thy foot thou destroyest my canoe." 

Upon this, Kana pointed out to Niheu a bush, and 
said, "Can you pull up that bush?" 

"Yes," replied Niheu, for it was but a small bush, 
and he doubted not his ability to root it up ; so he 
pulled and tugged away, but could not loosen it. 

Kana looking on, said, tauntingly, "Your foeman 
will not be overcome by you." 

Then Kana stretched forth his hands, scratching 
among the forests, and soon had a canoe in one hand; 
a little more and another canoe appeared in the other 
hand. The twin canoes were named Kaumueli. He 
lifted them down to the shore, provided them with 
paddles, and then appointed fourteen rowers. Kana 
embarked with his magic rod called Waka-i-lani. 
Thus they set forth to wage war upon Kapeepeekauila. 
They went on until the canoes grounded on a hard 

Niheu called out, "Behold, thou sleepest, O Kana, 
while we all perish." 

Kana replied, "What is there to destroy us? Are 
not these the reefs of Haupu? Away with the ledges, 
the rock points, and the yawning chasms! Smite 
with Waka-i-lani^ thy rod." 

Niheu smote, the rocks crumbled to pieces, and the 
canoes were freed. They pursued their course again 


until Niheu, being on the watch, cried out, "Why 
sleepest thou, O Kana? Here we perish, again. Thy 
like for sleeping I never saw!" 

"Wherefore perish?" said Kana. 

"Behold," replied Niheu, cc the fearful wall of water. 
If we attempt to pass it, it will topple over and destroy 
us all." 

Then said Kana : " Behold, behind us the reefs of 
Haupu. That is the destruction passed. As for the 
destruction before us, smite with thy rod." 

Niheu smote, the wall of water divided, and the 
canoes passed safely through. Then they went on 
their course again, as before. After a time, Niheu 
again called out, "Alas, again we perish. Here 
comes a great monster. If he falls upon us, we are 
all dead men." 

And Kana said, "Look sharp, now, and when the 
pointed snout crosses our bow, smite with thy rod." 

And he did so, and behold, this great thing was a 
monster fish, and when brought on board it became 
food for them all. So wonderfully great was this fish 
that its weight brought the rim of the canoes down to 
the water's edge. 

They continued on their way, and next saw the open 
mouth of the sharp-toothed shark — another of the 
outer defences of Haupu — awaiting them. 

"Smite with thy rod," ordered Kana. 

Niheu smote, and the shark died. 

Next they came upon the great turtle, another 
defence of Haupu. Again the sleepy Kana is aroused 
by the cry of the watchful Niheu, and the turtle is 


slain by the stroke of the magic rod. All this was 
during the night. At last, just as the edge of the 
morning lifted itself from the deep, their mast became 
entangled in the branches of the trees. Niheu flung 
upward a stone. It struck. The branches came rat- 
tling down, and the mast was free. On they went till 
the canoes gently stood still. On this, Niheu cried 
out, "Here you are, asleep again, O Kana, and the 
canoes are aground ! " 

Kana felt beneath; there was no ground. He felt 
above ; the mast was entangled in weeds. He pulled, 
and the weeds and earth came down together. The 
smell of the fresh-torn weeds was wafted up to Hale- 
huki, the house where Kapeepeekauila lived. His 
people, on the top of Haupu, looked down on the 
canoes floating at the foot. "Wondrous is the size 
of the canoes!" they cried. "Ah! it is a load of opibis 
(shell-fish) from Hawaii for Hina," for that was a 
favorite dish with her. 

Meantime, Kana despatched Niheu after his mother. 
"Go in friendly fashion," said the former. 

Niheu leaped ashore, but slipped and fell on the 
smooth rocks. Back he went to the canoes. 

"What sort of a coming back is this?" demanded 

"I slipped and fell, and just escaped with my life," 
answered Niheu. 

"Back with you!" thundered Kana. 

Again the luckless Niheu sprang ashore, but the 
long-eyed sand-crabs {phiki-makalod) made the sand fly 
with their scratching till his eyes were filled. Back to 


the canoes again he went. "Got it all in my eyes!" 
said he, and he washed them out with sea-water. 

"You fool!" shouted Kana; "what were you look- 
ing down for? The sand-crabs are not birds. If you 
had been looking up, as you ought, you would not 
have got the sand in your eyes. Go again!" 

This time he succeeded, and climbed to the top of 
Haupu. Arriving at the house, Hale-huki, where 
Hina dwelt, he entered at once. Being asked "Why 
enterest thou this forbidden door?" he replied: 

"Because I saw thee entering by this door. Hadst 
thou entered some other way, I should not have come 
in at the door." And behold, Kapeepeekauila and Hina 
sat before him. Then Niheu seized the hand of Hina 
and said, " Let us two go." And she arose and went. 

When they had gone about half-way to the brink of 
the precipice, Kapeepeekauila exclaimed, "What is 
this? Is the woman gone?" 

Mo-i, the sister of Kana, answered and said, "If you 
wish the woman, now is the time ; you and I fight." 

Great was the love of Kapeepeekauila for Hina, and 
he said, "No war dare touch Haupu; behold, it is a 
hill, growing even to the heavens." And he sent the 
kolea (plover) squad to desecrate the sacred locks of 
Niheu; for the locks of Niheu were kapu t and if they 
should be touched, he would relinquish Hina for very 
shame. So the kolea company sailed along in the air 
till they brushed against the sacred locks of Niheu, 
and for very shame he let go his mother and struck at 
the koleas with his rod and hit their tail feathers and 
knocked them all out, so that they remain tailless to 


this day. And he returned to the edge of the shore, 
while the koleas bore off Hina in triumph. 

When Niheu reached the shore, he beat his forehead 
with stones till the blood flowed; a trick which Kana 
perceived from on board the canoes. And when Niheu 
went on board he said, "See ! we fought and I got my 
head hurt." 

But Kana replied, "There was no fight; you did it 
yourself, out of shame at your defeat." 

And Niheu replied, "What, then, shall we fight?" 

"Yes," said Kana, and he stood up. 

Now, one of his legs was named Keauea and the 
other Kaipanea, and as he stood upon the canoes, he 
began to lengthen himself upward until the dwellers on 
top of Haupu exclaimed in terror, "We are all dead 
men! Behold, here is a great giant towering above us." 

And Kapeepeekauila, seeing this, hastened to prune 
the branches of the kamani tree {Calophyllum inophyl- 
lum), so that the bluff should grow upward. And the 
bluff rose, and Kana grew. Thus they strove, the 
bluff rising higher and Kana growing taller, until he 
became as the stalk of a banana leaf, and gradually 
spun himself out till he was no thicker than a strand 
of a spider's web, and at last he yielded the victory to 
K apeepeekauila. 

Niheu, seeing the defeat of Kana, called out, "Lay 
yourself along to Kona, on Hawaii, to your grand- 
mother, Uli." 

And he laid himself along with his body in Kona, 
while his feet rested on Molokai. His grandmother 
in Kona fed him until he became plump and fat again. 


Meanwhile, poor Niheu, watching at his feet on Mo- 
lokai, saw their sides fill out with flesh while he was 
almost starved with hunger. "So, then," quoth he, 
"you are eating and growing fat while I die with 
hunger." And he cut off" one of Kana's feet for 

The sensation crept along up to his body, which lay 
in Kona, and Kana said to his grandmother, Uli, "I 
seem to feel a numbness creeping over me." 

And she answered, and said, "Thy younger brother 
is hungry with watching, and seeing thy feet grow 
plump, he has cut off one of them; therefore this 

Kana, having at last grown strong and fat, prepared 
to wage war again upon Kapeepeekauila. Food was 
collected in abundance from Waipio, and when it was 
prepared, they embarked again in their canoes and 
came back to Haupu, on Molokai. But his grand- 
mother, Uli, had previously instructed him to first 
destroy all the branches of the kamani tree of Haupu. 
Then he showed himself, and began again to stretch 
upward and tower above the bluff. Kapeepeekauila 
hastened again to trim the branches of the kamani, 
that the bluff might grow as before ; but behold, they 
were all gone! It was the end; Kapeepeekauila was at 
last vanquished. The victorious Kana recovered his 
sister, Mo-i, restored to poor Hakalanileo his wife, 
Hina, and then, tearing down the bluff of Haupu, 
kicked off large portions of it into the sea, where they 
stand to this day, and are called "The Rocks of Kana." 




T7"AOPELE was born in Waipio, Hawaii. When 
born he did not breathe, and his parents were 
greatly troubled; but they washed his body clean, and 
having arrayed it in good clothes, they watched 
anxiously over the body for several days, and then, 
concluding it to be dead, placed it in a small cave in 
the face of the cliff. There the body remained from 
the summer month of Ikiki (July or August) to the 
winter month of Ikua (December or January), a period 
of six months. 

At this time they were startled by a violent storm 
of thunder and lightning, and the rumbling of an 
earthquake. At the same time appeared the marvel- 
lous phenomenon of eight rainbows arching over the 
mouth of the cave. Above the din of the storm 
the parents heard the voice of the awakened child 
calling to them : 

" Let your love rest upon me, 

O my parents, who have thrust me forth, 

Who have left me in the cavernous cliff, 

Who have heartlessly placed me in the 

Cliff frequented by the tropic bird ! 



O Waiaalaia, my mother! 
O Waimanu, my father! 
Come and take me!" 

The yearning love of the mother earnestly besought 
the father to go in quest of the infant ; but he pro- 
tested that search was useless, as the child was long 
since dead. But, unable longer to endure a woman's 
teasing, which is the same in all ages, he finally set 
forth in high dudgeon, vowing that in case of failure 
he would punish her on his return. 

On reaching the place where the babe had been 
deposited, its body was not to be found. But lifting 
up his eyes and looking about, he espied the child 
perched on a tree, braiding a wreath from the scarlet 
flowers of the lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha). "I 
have come to take you home with me," said the 
father. But the infant made no answer. The mother 
received the child to her arms with demonstrations 
of the liveliest affection. At her suggestion they 
named the boy Kaopele, from the name of their 
goddess, Pele. 

Six months after this, on the first day (Hilo) of the 
new moon, in the month of Ikiki, they returned home 
from working in the fields and found the child lying 
without breath, apparently dead. After venting their 
grief for their darling in loud lamentations, they 
erected a frame to receive its dead body. >, 

Time healed the , wounds of their affection, and 
after the lapse of six moons they had ceased to 
mourn, when suddenly they were affrighted by a storm 
of thunder and lightning, with a quaking of the earth, 


in the midst of which they distinguished the cry of 
their child, "Oh, come; come and take me!" 

They, overjoyed at this second restoration of their 
child to them, and deeming it to be a miracle worked by 
their goddess, made up their minds that if it again fell 
into a trance they would not be anxious, since their god- 
dess would awake their child and bring it to life again. 

But afterward the child informed them of their 
mistake, saying: "This marvel that you see in me is 
a trance ; when I pass into my deep sleep my spirit 
at once floats away in the upper air with the goddess, 
Poliahu. We are a numerous band of spirits, but I 
excel them in the distance of my flights. In one day 
I can compass this island of Hawaii, as well as Maui, 
Oahu, and Kauai, and return again. In my flights 
I have seen that Kauai is the richest of all the islands, 
for it is well supplied with food and fish, and it is 
abundantly watered. I intend to remain with you 
until I am grown; then I shall journey to Kauai and 
there spend the rest of my life." Thus Kaopele lived 
with his parents until he was grown, but his habit 
of trance still clung to him. 

Then one day he filled them with grief by saying: 
"I am going, aloha." 

They sealed their love for each other with tears and 
kisses, and he slept and was gone. He alighted at 
Kula, on Maui. There he engaged in cultivating 
food. When his crops were nearly ripe and ready to 
be eaten he again fell into his customary deep sleep, 
and when he awoke he found that the people of the 
land had eaten up all his crops. 


Then he flew away to a place called Kapapakolea, 
in Moanalua, on Oahu, where he set out a new plan- 
tation. Here the same fortune befell him, and his 
time for sleep came upon him before his crops were 
fit for eating. When he awoke, his plantation had 
gone to waste. 

Again he moves on, and this time settles in Lihue, 
Oahu, where for the third time he sets out a plan- 
tation of food, but is prevented from eating it by 
another interval of sleep. Awakening, he finds his 
crops overripe and wasted by neglect and decay. 

His restless ambition now carries him to Lahuimalo, 
still on the island of Oahu, where his industry plants 
another crop of food. Six months pass, and he is 
about to eat of the fruits of his labor, when one day, 
on plunging into the river to bathe, he falls into his 
customary trance, and his lifeless body is floated 
by the stream out into the ocean and finally cast up 
by the waters on the sands of Maeaea, a place in 
Waialua, Oahu. 

At the same time there arrived a man from Kauai 
in search of a human body to offer as a sacrifice at 
the temple of Kahikihaunaka at Wailua, on Kauai, 
and having seen the corpse of Kaopele on the beach, 
he asks and obtains permission of the feudal lord 
{Konohiki) of Waialua to take it. Thus it happens 
that Kaopele is taken by canoe to the island of Kauai 
and placed, along with the corpse of another man, on 
the altar of the temple at Wailua. 

There he lay until the bones of his fellow corpse 
had begun to fall apart. When six moons had 


been accomplished, at midnight there came a burst 
of thunder and an earthquake. Kaopele came to life, 
descended from the altar, and directed his steps toward 
a light which he saw shining through some chinks 
in a neighboring house. He was received by the 
occupants of the house with that instant and hearty- 
hospitality which marks the Hawaiian race, and bid- 
den to enter ("mai, komo mai"^). 

Food was set before him, with which he refreshed 
himself. The old man who seemed to be the head 
of the household was so much pleased and impressed 
with the bearing and appearance of our hero that 
he forthwith sought to secure him to be the husband 
of his granddaughter, a beautiful girl named Maka- 
lani. Without further ado, he persuaded him to be a 
suitor for the hand of the girl, and while it was yet 
night, started off to obtain the girl's consent and 
to bring her back with him. 

The young woman was awakened from her slum- 
bers in the night to hear the proposition of her 
grandfather, who painted to her in glowing colors the 
manly attractions of her suitor. The suit found favor 
in the eyes of the girl's parents and she herself was 
nothing loath ; but with commendable maidenly pro- 
priety she insisted that her suitor should be brought 
and presented to her, and that she should not first 
seek him. 

The sun had hardly begun to lift the dew from the 
grass when our young hero, accompanied by the two 
matchmakers, was brought into the presence of his 
future wife. They found favor in each other's eyes, 


and an ardent attachment sprang up on the instant. 
Matters sped apace. A separate house was assigned 
as the residence of the young couple, and their mar- 
ried life began felicitously. 

But the instincts of a farmer were even stronger 
in the breast of Kaopele than the bonds of matri- 
mony. In the middle of the night he arose, and, 
leaving the sleeping form of his bride, passed out into 
the darkness. He went mauka until he came upon 
an extensive upland plain, where he set to work clear- 
ing and making ready for planting. This done, 
he collected from various quarters shoots and roots 
of potato, kaloy banana, waoke, awa> and other 
plants, and before day the whole plain was a planta- 
tion. After his departure his wife awoke with a start 
and found her husband was gone. She went into the 
next house, where her parents were sleeping, and, 
waking them, made known her loss ; but they knew 
nothing of his whereabouts. Much perplexed, they 
were still debating the cause of his departure, when 
he suddenly returned, and to his wife's questioning, 
answered that he had been at work. 

She gently reproved him for interrupting their bridal 
night with agriculture, and told him there would be 
time enough for that when they had lived together a 
while and had completed their honeymoon. "And 
besides," said she, "if you wish to turn your hand to 
agriculture, here is the plat of ground at hand in which 
my father works, and you need not go up to that plain 
where only wild hogs roam." 

To this he replied: "My hand constrains me to 


plant ; I crave work ; does idleness bring in anything? 
There is profit only when a man turns the palm of his 
hand to the soil : that brings in food for family and 
friends. If one were indeed the son of a king he could 
sleep until the sun was high in the heavens, and then 
rise and find the bundles of cooked food ready for him. 
But for a plain man, the only thing to do is to cultivate 
the soil and plant, and when he returns from his work 
let him light his oven, and when the food is cooked 
let the husband and the wife crouch about the hearth 
and eat together." 

Again, very early on the following morning, while 
his wife slept, Kaopele rose, and going to the house of 
a neighbor, borrowed a fishhook with its tackle. Then, 
supplying himself with bait, he went a-fishing in the 
ocean and took an enormous quantity offish. On his 
way home he stopped at the house where he had bor- 
rowed the tackle and returned it, giving the man also 
half of the fish. Arrived at home, he threw the load of 
fish onto the ground with a thud which waked his wife 
and parents. 

" So you have been a-fishing," said his wife. "Think- 
ing you had again gone to work in the field, I went up 
there, but you were not there. But what an immense 
plantation you have set out! Why, the whole plain 
is covered." 

His father-in-law said, "A fine lot of fish, my 

Thus went life with them until the crops were ripe, 
when one day Kaopele said to his wife, who was now 
evidently with child, "If the child to be born is a boy, 


name it Kalelealuaka ; but if it be a girl, name it as 
you will, from your side of the family." 

From his manner she felt uneasy and suspicious of 
him, and said, "Alas! do you intend to desert me?" 

Then Kaopele explained to his wife that he was not 
really going to leave her, as men are wont to forsake 
their wives, but he foresaw that that was soon to hap- 
pen which was habitual to him, and he felt that on the 
night of the morrow a deep sleep would fall upon him 
(puni ka hiamoe), which would last for six months. 
Therefore, she was not to fear. 

"Do not cast me out nor bury me in the ground," 
said he. Then he explained to her how he happened 
to be taken from Oahu to Kauai and how he came to 
be her husband, and he commanded her to listen 
attentively to him and to obey him implicitly. Then 
they pledged their love to each other, talking and not 
sleeping all that night. 

On the following day all the friends and neighbors 
assembled, and as they sat about, remarks were made 
among them in an undertone, like this, " So this is the 
man who was placed on the altar of the heiau at 
Wailua." And as evening fell he bade them all aloha, 
and said that he should be separated from them for 
six months, but that his body would remain with them 
if they obeyed his commands. And, having kissed his 
wife, he fell into the dreamful, sacred sleep of Niolo- 

On the sixth day the father-in-law said: "Let us 
bury your husband, lest he stink. I thought it was to 
be only a natural sleep, but it is ordinary death. 


Look, his body is rigid, his flesh is cold, and he does 
not breathe; these are the signs of death." 

But Makalani protested, "I will not let him be 
buried ; let him lie here, and I will watch over him as 
he commanded ; you also heard his words." But in 
spite of the wife's earnest protests, the hard-hearted 
father-in-law gathered strong vines of the koali ( con- 
volvulus), tied them about Kaopele's feet, and attaching 
to them heavy stones, caused his body to be conveyed 
in a canoe and sunk in the dark waters of the ocean 
midway between Kauai and Oahu. 

Makalani lived in sorrow for her husband until the 
birth of her child, and as it was a boy, she called his 
name Kalelealuaka. 


When the child was about two months old the sky 
became overcast and there came up a mighty storm, 
with lightning and an earthquake. Kaopele awoke 
in his dark, watery couch, unbound the cords that 
held his feet, and by three powerful strokes raised 
himself to the surface of the water. He looked toward 
Kauai and Oahu, but love for his wife and child pre- 
vailed and drew him to Kauai. 

In the darkness of night he stood by his wife's bed 
and, feeling for her, touched her forehead with his 
clammy hand. She awoke with a start, and on his 
making himself known she screamed with fright, 
"Ghost of Kaopele!" and ran to her parents. Not 
until a candle was lighted would she believe it to be 
her husband. The step-parents, in fear and shame at 


their heartless conduct, fled away, and never returned. 
From this time forth Kaopele was never again visited 
by a trance ; his virtue had gone out from him to the 
boy Kalelealuaka. 

When Kalelealuaka was ten years old Kaopele began 
to train the lad in athletic sports and to teach him all 
the arts of war and combat practised throughout the 
islands, until he had attained great proficiency in them. 
He also taught him the arts of running and jumping, 
so that he could jump either up or down a high pali y 
or run, like a waterfowl on the surface of the water. 
After this, one day Kalelealuaka went over to Wailua, 
where he witnessed the games of the chiefs. The 
youth spoke contemptuously of their performances as 
mere child's play ; and when his remark was reported 
to the King he challenged the young man to meet him 
in a boxing encounter. When Kalelealuaka came into 
the presence of the King his royal adversary asked 
him what wager he brought. As the youth had noth- 
ing with him, he seriously proposed that each one 
should wager his own body against that of the other 
one. The proposal was readily accepted. The herald 
sounded the signal of attack, and both contestants 
rushed at each other. Kalelealuaka warily avoided the 
attack by the King, and hastened to deliver a blow 
which left his opponent at his mercy ; and thereupon, 
using his privilege, he robbed the King of his life, and 
to the astonishment of all, carried away the body to lay 
as a sacrifice on the altar of the temple, hitherto uncon- 
secrated by human sacrifice, which he and his father 
Kaopele had recently built in honor of their deity. 


After a time there reached the ear of Kalelealuaka 
a report of the great strength of a certain chief who 
lived in Hanalei. Accordingly, without saying any- 
thing about his intention, he went over to the valley 
of Hanalei. He found the men engaged in the game 
of throwing heavy spears at the trunk of a cocoanut- 
tree. As on the previous occasion, he invited a chal- 
lenge by belittling their exploits, and when challenged 
by the chief, fearlessly proposed, as a wager, the life 
of one against the other. This was accepted, and the 
chief had the first trial. His spear hit the stem of 
the huge tree and made its lofty crest nod in response 
to the blow. It was now the turn of Kalelealuaka to 
hurl the spear. In anticipation of the failure of the 
youth and his own success, the chief took the precau- 
tion to station his guards about Kalelealuaka, to be 
ready to seize him on the instant. In a tone of com- 
mand our hero bade the guards fall back, and brand- 
ishing his spear, stroked and polished it with his hands 
from end to end; then he poised and hurled it, and to 
the astonishment of all, lo! the tree was shivered to 
pieces. On this the people raised a shout of admira- 
tion at the prowess of the youth, and declared he must 
be the same hero who had slain the chief at Wailua. 
In this way Kalelealuaka obtained a second royal 
sacrifice with which to grace the altar of his temple. 

One clear, calm evening, as Kalelealuaka looked 
out to sea, he descried the island of Oahu, which is 
often clearly visible from Kauai, and asked his father 
what land that was that stood out against them. 
Kaopele told the youth it was Oahu; that the cape 


that swam out into the ocean like a waterfowl was 
Kaena; that the retreating contour of the coast beyond 
was Waianae. Thus he described the land to his son. 
The result was that the adventurous spirit of Kalelea- 
luaka was fired to explore this new island for himself, 
and he expressed this wish to his father. Everything 
that Kalelealuaka said or did was good in the eye of 
his father, Kaopele. Accordingly, he immediately set 
to work and soon had a canoe completely fitted out, 
in which Kalelealuaka might start on his travels. 
Kalelealuaka took with him, as travelling companion, 
a mere lad named Kaluhe, and embarked in his canoe. 
With two strokes of the paddle his prow grated on the 
sands of Waianae. 

Before leaving Kauai his father had imparted to 
Kalelealuaka something of the topography of Oahu, 
and had described to him the site of his former plan- 
tation at Keahumoe. At Waianae the two travellers 
were treated affably by the people of the district. In 
reply to the questions put them, they said they were 
going sight-seeing. As they went along they met a 
party of boys amusing themselves with darting arrows; 
one of them asked permission to join their party. 
This was given, and the three turned inland and jour- 
neyed till they reached a plain of soft, whitish rock, 
where they all refreshed themselves with food. Then 
they kept on ascending, until Keahumoe lay before 
them, dripping with hoary moisture from the mist of 
the mountain, yet as if smiling through its tears. 
Here were standing bananas with ripened, yellow fruit, 
upland kalo, and sugar cane, rusty and crooked with 


age, while the sweet potatoes had crawled out of the 
earth and were cracked and dry. It was the very- 
place where Kaopele, the father of Kalelealuaka, had 
years before set out the plants from which these were 

"This is our food, and a good place, perhaps, for 
us to settle down," said Kalelealuaka; "but before we 
make up our minds to stay here let me dart an arrow; 
and if it drops soon we shall stay, but if it flies afar 
we shall not tarry here." Kalelealuaka darted his 
arrow, while his companions looked on intently. The 
arrow flew along, passing over many a hill and valley, 
and finally rested beyond Kekuapoi, while they fol- 
lowed the direction of its wonderful flight. Kalelea- 
luaka sent his companions on to find the arrow, telling 
them at the same time to go to the villages and get 
some awa roots for drink, while he would remain there 
and put up a shelter for them. 

On their way the two companions of Kalelealuaka 
encountered a number of women washing kalo in a 
stream, and on asking them if they had seen their 
arrow flying that way they received an impertinent 
answer; whereupon they called out the name of the 
arrow, "Pua-ne, Pua-ne," and it came to their hands 
at once. At this the women ran away, frightened at 
the marvel. 

The two boys then set to gathering awa roots, as 
they had been bidden. Seeing them picking up 
worthless fragments, a kind-hearted old man, who 
turned out to be the konohiki of the land, sent by his 
servants an abundance of good food to Kalelealuaka. 







On their return the boys found, to their astonishment, 
that during their absence Kalelealuaka had put up a 
fine, large house, which was all complete but the mats 
to cover the floors. The kind-hearted konohiki 
remarked this, and immediately sent his servants to 
fetch mats for the floors and sets of kapa for bedding, 
adding the command, "And with them bring along 
some malos" (girdles used by the males). Soon all 
their wants were supplied, and the three youths were 
set up in housekeeping. To these services the kono- 
hiki, through his attendants, added still others; some 
chewed and strained the awa, while others cooked and 
spread for them a bountiful repast. The three youths 
ate and drank, and under the drowsy influence of the 
awa they slept until the little birds that peopled the 
wilderness about them waked them with their morning 
songs; then they roused and found the sun already 
climbing the heavens. 

Now, Kalelealuaka called to his comrades, and said, 
"Rouse up and let us go to cultivating." To this they 
agreed, and each one set to work in his own way, work- 
ing his own piece of ground. The ground prepared by 
Kalelealuaka was a strip of great length, reaching from 
the mountain down toward the ocean. This he cleared 
and planted the same day. His two companions, how- 
ever, spent several days in clearing their ground, and 
then several days more in planting it. While these 
youths occupied their mountain home, the people of 
that region were well supplied with food. The only 
lack of Kalelealuaka and his comrades was animal food 
(literally, fish), but they supplied its place as well as 


they could with such herbs as the tender leaves of the 
popolo, which they cooked like spinach, and with 
inamona made from the roasted nuts of the kukui tree 
(Aleurites molluccand). 

One day, as they were eking out their frugal meal 
with a mess of popolo cooked by the lad from Wai- 
anae, Kalelealuaka was greatly disgusted at seeing a 
worm in that portion that the youth was eating, and 
thereupon nicknamed him Keinohoomanawanui (sloven, 
or more literally, the persistently unclean). The name 
ever after stuck to him. This same fellow had the 
misfortune, one evening, to injure one of his eyes by 
the explosion of a kukui nut which he was roasting on 
the fire. As a result, that member was afflicted with 
soreness, and finally became blinded. But their life 
agreed with them, and the youths throve and increased 
in stature, and grew to be stout and lusty young men. 

Now, it happened that ever since their stay at their 
mountain house, Lelefua (arrow flight), they had kept 
a torch burning all night, which was seen by Kaku- 
hihewa, the King of Oahu, and had caused him 

One fine evening, when they had eaten their fill 
and had gone to bed, Kalelealuaka called to Keinohoo- 
manawanui and said, "Halloo there! are you asleep?" 

And he replied, "No; have I drunk awa? I am 
restless. My eyes will not close." 

"Well," said Kalelealuaka, "when you are restless at 
night, what does your mind find to do?" 

"Nothing," said the Sloven. 

"I find something to think about," said Kalelealuaka. 


"What is that?" said the Sloven. 

"Let us wish" (kuko> literally, to lust), said Kalelea- 

"What shall we wish?" said the Sloven. 

"Whatever our hearts most earnestly desire," said 
Kalelealuaka. Thereupon they both wished. The 
Sloven, in accordance with his nature, wished for 
things to eat, — the eels, from the fish-pond of Hana- 
loa (in the district of Ewa), to be cooked in an oven 
together with sweet potatoes, and a bowl of awa. 

"Pshaw, what a beggarly wish!" said Kalelealuaka. 
"I thought you had a real wish. I have a genuine 
wish. Listen: The beautiful daughters of Kakuhi- 
hewa to be my wives; his fatted pigs and dogs to be 
baked for us; his choice kalo, sugar cane, and bananas 
to be served up for us; that Kakuhihewa himself send 
and get timber and build a house for us; that he pull 
the famous awa of Kahauone; that the King send and 
fetch us to him; that he chew the awa for us in his 
own mouth, strain and pour it for us, and give us to 
drink until we are happy, and then take us to our 

Trembling with fear at the audacious ambition of 
his concupiscent companion, the Sloven replied, "If 
your wish should come to the ears of the King, we 
shall die; indeed, we should die." 

In truth, as they were talking together and uttering 
their wishes, Kakuhihewa had arrived, and was all the 
time listening to their conversation from the outside 
of their house. When the King had heard their con- 
versation he thrust his spear into the ground outside 


the inclosure about Kalelealuaka's house, and by the 
spear placed his stone weapon (paboa), and immedi- 
ately returned to his residence at Puuloa. Upon his 
arrival at home that night King Kakuhihewa com- 
manded his stewards to prepare a feast, and then sum- 
moned his chiefs and table companions and said, "Let 
us sup." When all was ready and they had seated them- 
selves, the King said, " Shall we eat, or shall we talk? " 

One of them replied : " If it please the King, perhaps 
it were better for him to speak first ; it may be what 
he has to say touches a matter of life and death ; there- 
fore, let him speak and we will listen." 

Then Kakuhihewa told them the whole story of the 
light seen in the mountains, and of the wishes of Kale- 
lealuaka and the Sloven. 

Then up spoke the soldiers, and said: "Death! 
This man is worthy to be put to death ; but as for the 
other one, let him live." 

"Hold," said the King, "not so fast! Before con- 
demning him to death, I will call together the wise 
men, priests, wizards, and soothsayers ; perchance they 
will find that this is the man to overcome Kualii in 
battle." Thereupon all the wise men, priests, wizards, 
and soothsayers were immediately summoned, and after 
the King had explained the whole story to them they 
agreed with the opinion of the soldiers. Again the 
King interposed delay, and said, "Wait until my wise 
kahuna Napuaikamao comes ; if his opinion agrees 
with yours, then, indeed, let the man be put to death ; 
but if he is wiser than you, the man shall live. But 
you will have eaten this food in vain." 


So the King sent one of his fleetest runners to go 
and fetch Napuaikamao. To him the King said, "I 
have sent for you to decide what is just and right in 
the case of these two men who lived up in the region 
of Waipio." Then he went on to state the whole case 
to this wise man. 

"In regard to Keinohoomanawanui's wish," said the 
wise man, "that is an innocent wish, but it is profitless 
and will bring no blessing." At the narration of Kale- 
lealuaka's wish he inclined his head, as if in thought; 
then lifting his head, he looked at the King and said: 
"O King, as for this man's wish, it is an ambition which 
will bring victory to the government. Now, then, send 
all your people and fetch house-timber and awa." 

As soon as the wise man had given this opinion, the 
King commanded his chief marshal, Maliuhaaino, to 
set every one to work to carry out the directions of 
this counsellor. This was done, and before break 
of day every man, woman, and child in the district 
of Ewa, a great multitude, was on the move. 

Now, when the Sloven awoke in the morning and 
went out of doors, he found the stone weapon (pahod) 
of the King, with his spear, standing outside of the 
house. On seeing this' he rushed back into the house 
and exclaimed to his comrades, "Alas! our wishes have 
been overheard by the King ; here are his hatchet 
and his spear. I said that if the King heard us we 
should die, and he has indeed heard us. But yours 
was the fatal ambition ; mine was only an innocent 

Even while they were talking, the babble of the 


multitude drew near, and the Sloven exclaimed, "Our 
death approaches!" 

Kalelealuaka replied, "That is not for our death; it 
is the people coming to get timber for our houses." 
But the fear of the Sloven would not be quieted. 

The multitude pressed on, and by the time the last 
of them had reached the mountain the foremost had 
returned to the sea-coast and had begun to prepare the 
foundations for the houses, to dig the holes for the 
posts, to bind on the rafters and the small poles on 
which they tied the thatch, until the houses were done. 

Meantime, some were busy baking the pigs and the 
poi-fed dogs in ovens; some in bringing the eels of 
Kanaloa and cooking them with potatoes in an oven 
by themselves. 

The houses are completed, everything is ready, the 
grand marshal, Maliuhaaino, has just arrived in front 
of the house of the ambitious youth Kalelealuaka, and 
calls out " Keinohoomanawanui, come out!" and he 
comes out, trembling. "Kalelealuaka, come out!" and 
he first sends out the boy Kaluhe and then comes forth 
himself and stands outside, a splendid youth. The 
marshal stands gazing at him in bewilderment and 
admiration. When he has regained his equanimity 
he says to him, "Mount on my back and let us go 

"No," said Kalelealuaka, "I will go by myself, and 
do you walk ahead. I will follow after; but do not 
look behind you, lest you die." 

As soon as they had started down, Kalelealuaka was 
transported to Kuaikua, in Helemano. There he 


plunged into the water and bathed all over ; this done, 
he called on his ancestral shades {Aumakua), who 
came and performed on him the rite of circumcision 
while lightning flashed, thunder sounded, and the 
earth quaked. 

Kaopele, on Kauai, heard the commotion and 
exclaimed, "Ah! my son has received the purifying 
rite — the offspring of the gods goes to meet the sov- 
ereign of the land" {Alii aimoku). 

Meanwhile, the party led by Maliuhaaino was mov- 
ing slowly down toward the coast, because the marshal 
himself was lame. Returning from his purification, 
Kalelealuaka alighted just to the rear of the party, who 
had not noticed his absence, and becoming impatient 
at the tedious slowness of the journey, — for the day 
was waning, and the declining sun was already stand- 
ing over a peak of the Waianae Mountains called 
Puukuua, — this marvellous fellow caught up the lame 
marshal in one hand and his two comrades in the other, 
and, flying with them, set them down at Puuloa. But 
the great marvel was, that they knew nothing about 
being transported, yet they had been carried and set 
down as from a sheet. 

On their arrival at the coast all was ready, and the 
people were waiting for them. A voice called out, 
"Here is you house, Keinohoomanawanui!" and the 
Sloven entered with alacrity and found bundles of his 
wished-for eels and potatoes already cooked and await- 
ing his disposal. 

But Kalelealuaka proudly declined to enter the 
house prepared for himself when the invitation came 


to him, "Come in! this is your house," all because his 
little friend Kaluhe, whose eyes had often been filled 
with smoke while cooking luau and roasting kukui 
nuts for him, had not been included in the invitation, 
and he saw that no provision had been made for him. 
When this was satisfactorily arranged Kalelealuaka 
and his little friend entered and sat down to eat. The 
King, with his own hand, poured out awa for Kalelea- 
luaka, brought him a gourd of water to rinse his 
mouth, offered him food, and waited upon him till he 
had supplied all his wants. 

Now, when Kalelealuaka had well drunken, and was 
beginning to feel drowsy from the awa, the lame 
marshal came in and led him to the two daughters of 
Kakuhihewa, and from that time these two lovely girls 
were his wives. 


Thus they lived for perhaps thirty days (he mau 
anahulu\ when a messenger arrived, announcing that 
Kualii was making war at Moanalua. The soldiers 
of Kakuhihewa quickly made themselves ready, and 
among them Keinohoomanawanui went out to battle. 
The lame marshal had started for the scene the night 

On the morning of the day of battle, Kalelealuaka 
said to his wives that he had a great hankering for 
some shrimps and moss, which must be gathered in a 
particular way, and that nothing else would please his 
appetite. Thereupon, they dutifully set out to obtain 
these things for him. As soon as they had gone from 


the house Kalelealuaka flew to Waianae and arrayed 
himself with wreaths of the fine-leaved maile {Maile 
laulii), which is peculiar to that region. Thence he 
flew to Napeha, where the lame marshal, Maliuhaaino, 
was painfully climbing the hill on his way to battle. 
Kalelealuaka cheerily greeted him, and the following 
dialogue occurred: 

K. "Whither are you trudging, Maliuhaaino?" 

M. "What! don't you know about the war?" 

K. "Let me carry you." 

M. "How fast you travel ! Where are you from?" 

K. "From Waianae." 

M„ "So I see from your wreaths. Yes, carry me, 
and Waianae shall be yours." 

At the word Kalelealuaka picked up the cripple and 
set him down on an eminence mauka of the battle- 
field, saying, "Remain you here and watch me. If I 
am killed in the fight, you return by the same way we 
came and report to the King." 

Kalelealuaka then addressed himself to the battle, 
but before attacking the enemy he revenged himself on 
those who had mocked and jeered at him for not join- 
ing the forces of Kakuhihewa. This done, he turned 
his hand against the enemy, who at the time were 
advancing and inflicting severe loss in the King's 

To what shall we compare the prowess of our hero? 
A man was plucked and torn in his hand as if he were 
but a leaf. The commotion in the ranks of the 
enemy was as when a powerful waterfowl lashes the 
water with his wings (O haehae ka manu, Ke ale nei ka 


wai). Kalelealuaka moved forward in his work of 
destruction until he had slain the captain who stood 
beside the rebel chief, Kualii. From the fallen cap- 
tain he took his feather cloak and helmet and cut 
off his right ear and the little finger of his right hand. 
Thus ended the slaughter that day. 

The enthusiasm of the cripple was roused to the 
highest pitch on witnessing the achievements of Kale- 
lealuaka, and he determined to return and report that 
he had never seen his equal on the battlefield. 

Kalelealuaka returned to Puuloa and hid the feather 
cloak and helmet under the mats of his bed, and hav- 
ing fastened the dead captain's ear and little finger to 
the side of the house, lay down and slept. 

After a while, when the two women, his wives, 
returned with the moss and shrimps, he complained 
that the moss was not gathered as he had directed, 
and that they had been gone such a long time that his 
appetite had entirely left him, and he would not eat 
of what they had brought. At this the elder sister 
said nothing, but the younger one muttered a few 
words to herself; and as they were all very tired they 
soon went to sleep. 

They had slept a long while when the tramp of the 
soldiers of Kakuhihewa was heard, returning from the 
battle. The King immediately asked how the battle 
had gone. The soldiers answered that the battle had 
gone well, but that Keinohoomanawanui alone had 
greatly distinguished himself. To this the King replied 
he did not believe that the Sloven was a great warrior, 
but when the cripple returned he would learn the truth. 


About midnight the footsteps of the lame marshal 
were heard outside of the King's house. Kakuhihewa 
called to him, "Come, how went the battle?" 

"Can't you have patience and let me take breath?" 
said the marshal. Then when he had rested himself 
he answered, "They fought, but there was one man 
who excelled all the warriors in the land. He was 
from Waianae. I gave Waianae to him as a reward 
for carrying me." 

"It shall be his," said the King. 

"He tore a man to pieces," said the cripple, "as he 
would tear a banana-leaf. The champion of Kualii's 
army he killed, and plundered him of his feather cloak 
and helmet." 

"The soldiers say that Keinohoomanawanui was the 
hero of the day," said the King. 

"What!" said the cripple. "He did nothing. He 
merely strutted about. But this man — I never saw 
his equal; he had no spear, his only weapons were his 
hands; if a spear was hurled at him, he warded it off 
with his hair. His hair and features, by the way, 
greatly resemble those of your son-in-law." 

Thus they conversed till daybreak. 

After a few days, again came a messenger announc- 
ing that the rebel Kualii was making war on the plains 
of Kulaokahua. On hearing this Kakuhihewa imme- 
diately collected his soldiers. As usual, the lame mar- 
shal set out in advance the evening before the battle. 

In the morning, after the army had gone, Kalelea- 
luaka said to his wives, "I am thirsting for some 
water taken with the snout of the calabash held down- 


ward. I shall not relish it if it is taken with the 
snout turned up." Now, Kalelealuaka knew that they 
could not fill the calabash if held this way, but he 
resorted to this artifice to prevent the two young 
women from knowing of his miraculous flight to the 
battle. As soon as the young women had got out 
of sight he hastened to Waialua and arrayed himself 
in the rough and shaggy wreaths of uki from the 
lagoons of Ukoa and of hinahina from Kealia. Thus 
arrayed, he alighted behind the lame marshal as he 
climbed the hill at Napeha, slapped him on the back, 
exchanged greetings with him, and received a compli- 
ment on his speed; and when asked whence he came, he 
answered from Waialua. The shrewd, observant crip- 
ple recognized the wreaths as being those of Waialua, 
but he did not recognize the man, for the wreaths 
with which Kalelealuaka had decorated himself were 
of such a color — brownish gray — as to give him the 
appearance of a man of middle age. He lifted the 
cripple as before, and set him down on the brow of 
Puowaina (Punch Bowl Hill), and received from the 
grateful cripple, as a reward for his service, all the 
land of Waialua for his own. 

This done, Kalelealuaka repeated the performances 
of the previous battle. The enemy melted away 
before him, whichever way he turned. He stayed 
his hand only when he had slain the captain of the 
host and stripped him of his feather cloak and hel- 
met, taking also his right ear and little finger. The 
speed with which Kalelealuaka returned to his home 
at Puuloa was like the flight of a bird. The 


spoils and trophies of this battle he disposed of as 

The two young women, Kalelealuaka's wives, turned 
the nozzle of the water-gourd downward, as they were 
bidden, and continued to press it into the water, in 
the vain hope that it might rise and fill their con- 
tainer, until the noonday sun began to pour his rays 
directly upon their heads; but no water entered their 
calabash. Then the younger sister proposed to the 
elder to fill the calabash in the usual way, saying that 
Kalelealuaka would not know the difference. This 
they did, and returned home. 

Kalelealuaka would not drink of the water, declaring 
that it had been dipped up. At this the younger wife 
laughed furtively; the elder broke forth and said: "It 
is due to the slowness of the way you told us to 
employ in getting the water. We are not accustomed 
to the menial office of fetching water; our father treated 
us delicately, and a man always fetched water for us, 
and we always used to see him pour the water into 
the gourd with the nozzle turned up, but you trickily 
ordered us to turn the nozzle down. Your exactions 
are heartless." 

Thus the women kept complaining until, by and 
by, the tramp of the returning soldiers was heard, who 
were boasting of the great deeds of Keinohoomana- 
wanui. The King, however, said: "I do not believe 
a word of your talk; when my cripple comes he will 
tell me the truth. I do not believe that Keinohoo- 
manawanui is an athlete. Such is the opinion I have 
formed of him. But there is a powerful man, Kale- 


lealuaka, — if he were to go into battle I am confident 
he would perform wonders. Such is the opinion I 
have formed of him, after careful study." 

So the King waited for the return of the cripple 
until night, and all night until nearly dawn. When 
finally the lame marshal arrived, the King prudently 
abstained from questioning him until he had rested 
a while and taken breath; then he obtained from him 
the whole story of this new hero from Waialua, 
whose name he did not know, but who, he declared, 
resembled the King's son-in-law, Kalelealuaka. 

Again, on a certain day, came the report of an attack 
by Kualii at Kulaokahua, and the battle was to be on 
the morrow. The cripple, as usual, started off the 
evening before. In the morning, Kalelealuaka called 
to his wives, and said: "Where are you? Wake up. 
I wish you to bake a fowl for me. Do it thus: Pluck 
it; do not cut it open, but remove the inwards through 
the opening behind ; then stuff it with luau from the 
same end, and bake it; by no means cut it open, lest 
you spoil the taste of it." 

As soon as they had left the house he flew to 
Kahuku and adorned his neck with wreaths of the 
pandanus fruit and his head with the flowers of the 
sugar cane, thus entirely changing his appearance and 
making him look like a gray-haired old man. As on 
previous days, he paused behind the cripple and 
greeted him with a friendly slap on the back. Then 
he kindly lifted the lame man and set him down at 
Puowaina. In return for this act of kindness the 
cripple gave him the district of Koolau. 


In this battle he first slew those soldiers in Kaku- 
hihewa's army who had spoken ill of him. Then he 
turned his hand against the warriors of Kualii, smiting 
them as with the stroke of lightning, and displaying 
miraculous powers. When he had reached the cap- 
tain of Kualii's force, he killed him and despoiled his 
body of his feather cloak and helmet, taking also 
a little finger and toe. With these he flew to the 
cripple, whom he lifted and bore in his flight as far as 
Waipio, and there dropped him at a point just below 
where the water bursts forth at Waipahu. 

Arrived at his house, Kalelealuaka, after disposing 
of his spoils, lay down and slept. After he had slept 
several hours, his wives came along in none too 
pleased a mood and awoke him, saying his meat was 
cooked. Kalelealuaka merely answered that it was so 
late his appetite had gone, and he did not care to 

At this slight his wives said: "Well, now, do you 
think we are accustomed to work? We ought to live 
without work, like a king's daughters, and when 
the men have prepared the food then we should 
go and eat it." 

The women were still muttering over their griev- 
ance, when along came the soldiers, boasting of the 
powers of Keinohoomanawanui, and as they passed 
Kalelealuaka's door they said it were well if the two 
wives of this fellow, who lounges at home in time 
of war, were given to such a brave and noble warrior 
as Keinohoomanawanui. 

The sun was just sinking below the ocean when 


the footsteps of the cripple were heard at the King's 
door, which he entered, sitting down within. After 
a short time the King asked him about the battle. 
"The valor and prowess of this third man were even 
greater than those of the previous ones; yet all three 
resemble each other. This day, however, he first 
avenged himself by slaying those who had spoken ill 
of him. He killed the captain of Kualii's army and 
took his feather cloak and helmet. On my return 
he lifted me as far as Waipahu." 

In a few days again came a report that Kualii had 
an army at a place called Kahapaakai, in Nuuanu. 
Maliuhaaino immediately marshalled his forces and 
started for the scene of battle the same evening. 

Early the next morning Kalelealuaka awakened his 
wives, and said to them: "Let us breakfast, but do 
you two eat quietly in your own house, and I in my 
house with the dogs; and do not come until I call 
you." So they did, and the two women went and 
breakfasted by themselves. At his own house Kale- 
lealuaka ordered Kaluhe to stir up the dogs and keep 
them barking until his return. Then he sprang away 
and lighted at Kapakakolea, where he overtook the 
cripple, whom, after the usual interchange of greetings, 
he lifted, and set down at a place 'called Waolani. 

On this day his first action was to smite and slay 
those who had reviled him at his own door. That 
done, he made a great slaughter among the soldiers 
of Kualii; then, turning, he seized Keinohoomana- 
wanui, threw him down and asked him how he became 
blinded in one eye. 


"It was lost," said the Sloven, "from the thrust 
of a spear, in a combat with Olopana." 

"Yes, to be sure," said Kalelealuaka, "while you 
and I were living together at Wailuku, you being on 
one side of the stream and I on the other, a kukui 
nut burst in the fire, and that was the spear that put 
out your eye." 

When the Sloven heard this, he hung his head. 
Then Kalelealuaka seized him to put him to death, 
when the spear of the Sloven pierced the fleshy part 
of Kalelealuaka's left arm, and in plucking it out the 
spear-head remained in the wound. 

Kalelealuaka killed Keinohoomanawanui and be- 
headed him, and, running to the cripple, laid the 
trophy at his feet with the words : " I present you, 
Maliuhaaino, with the head of Keinohoomanawanui." 
This done, he returned to the battle, and went on 
slaying until he had advanced to the captain of 
Kualii's forces, whom he killed and spoiled of his 
feather cloak and helmet. 

When Kualii saw that his chief captain, the bulwark 
of his power, was slain, he retreated and fled up 
Nuuanu Valley, pursued by Kalelealuaka, who over- 
took him at the head of the valley. Here Kualii 
surrendered himself, saying: "Spare my life. The 
land shall all go to Kakuhihewa, and I will dwell on 
it as a loyal subject under him and create no disturb- 
ance as long as I live." 

To this the hero replied: "Well said! I spare 
your life on these terms. But if you at any time 
foment a rebellion, I will take your life! So, then, 


return, and live quietly at home and do not stir up 
any war in Koolau." Thus warned, Kaulii set out to 
return to the "deep blue palis of Koolau." 

While the lame marshal was trudging homeward, 
bearing the head of the Sloven, Kalelealuaka alighted 
from his flight at his house, and having disposed in 
his usual manner of his spoils, immediately called 
to his wives to rejoin him at his own house. 

The next morning, after the sun was warm, the 
cripple arrived at the house of the King in a state 
of great excitement, and was immediately questioned 
by him as to the issue of the battle. "The battle 
was altogether successful," said the marshal, "but 
Keinohoomanawanui was killed. I brought his head 
along with me and placed it on the altar mauka 
of Kalawao. But I would advise you to send at once 
your fleetest runners through Kona and Koolau, com- 
manding everybody to assemble in one place, that I 
may review them and pick out and vaunt as the 
bravest that one whom I shall recognize by certain 
marks — for I have noted him well: he is wounded 
in the left arm." 

Now, Kakuhihewa's two swiftest runners (kukini) 
were Keakealani and Kuhelemoana. They were so 
fleet that they could compass Oahu six times in a 
forenoon, or twelve times in a whole day. These two 
were sent to call together all the men of the King's 
domain. The men of Waianae came that same 
day and stood in review on the sandy plains of 
Puuloa. But among them all was not one who bore 
the marks sought for. Then came the men of Kona, 













of Waialua, and of Koolau, but the man was not 

Then the lame marshal came and stood before the 
King and said: "Your bones shall rest in peace, 
Kalani. You had better send now and summon your 
son-in-law to come and stand before me; for he is the 
man." Then Kakuhihewa arose and went himself to 
the house of his son-in-law, and called to his daugh- 
ters that he had come to get their husband to go and 
stand before Maliuhaaino. 

Then Kalelealuaka lifted up the mats of his bed and 
took out the feather cloaks and the helmets and 
arrayed his two wives, and Kaluhe, and himself. Put- 
ting them in line, he stationed the elder of his wives 
first, next to her the younger, and third Kaluhe, and 
placing himself at the rear of the file, he gave the 
order to march, and thus accompanied he went forth 
to obey the King's command. 

The lame marshal saw them coming, and in ecstasy 
he prostrated himself and rolled over in the dust. 
"The feather cloak and the helmet on your elder 
daughter are the ones taken from the captain of Kualii's 
army in the first day's fight; those on your second 
daughter from the captain of the second day's fight; 
while those on Kalelealuaka himself are from the cap- 
tain killed in the battle on the fourth day. You will 
live, but perhaps I shall die, since he is weary of 
carrying me." 

The lame marshal went on praising and eulogizing 
Kalelealuaka as he drew near. Then addressing the 
hero, he said: "I recognize you, having met you 


before. Now show your left arm to the King and to 
this whole assembly, that they may see where you 
were wounded by the spear." 

Then Kalelealuaka bared his left arm and displayed 
his wound to the astonished multitude. Thereupon 
Kakuhihewa said: "Kalelealuaka and my daughters, 
do you take charge of the kingdom, and I will pass 
into the ranks of the common people under you." 

After this a new arrangement of the lands was made, 
and the country had peace until the death of Kakuhi- 
hewa; Kalelealuaka also lived peacefully until death 
took him. 





CTUDENTS of Hawaiian folk-lore find much of 
coincident interest with traditional or more historic 
beliefs of other and older lands. The same applies, 
in a measure, to some of the ancient customs of 
the people. This is difficult to account for, more 
especially since the Hawaiians possessed no written 
language by which such knowledge could be preserved 
or transmitted. Fornander and others discovered in 
the legends of this people traces of the story of the 
Flood, the standing still of the sun, and other narra- 
tives of Bible history, which some savants accept as 
evidence of their Aryan origin. This claim we are 
not disposed to dispute, but desire to present another 
line of tradition that has been neglected hitherto, yet 
has promise of much interest. 

It will doubtless interest some readers to learn that 
Hawaii is the real home of the Brownies, or was ; and 
that this adventurous nomadic tribe were known to the 
Hawaiians long before Swift's satirical mind con- 
ceived his Lilliputians. 

It would be unreasonable to expect so great a range 



of nationalities and peculiar characteristics among the 
pygmies of Hawaii as among the Brownies of story. 
Tradition naturally represents them as of one race, 
and all nimble workers ; not a gentleman dude, or 
policeman in the whole lot. Unlike the inquisitive 
and mischievous athletes of present fame, the original 
and genuine Brownies, known as the Menehunes, are 
referred to as an industrious race. In fact, it was their 
alleged power to perform a marvellous amount of 
labor in a short space of time that has fixed them in 
the minds of Hawaiians, many of whom point to cer- 
tain traces of their work in various parts of the islands 
to substantiate the traditional claim of their existence. 

Meeting thus with occasional references to this 
active race, but mostly in a vague way, it has been a 
matter of interesting inquiry among Hawaiians, some 
of whom were noted kaao> or legend-bearers, for 
further knowledge on the subject. Very naturally 
their ideas differ respecting the Menehunes. Some 
treat the subject with gravity and respect, and express 
the belief that they were the original inhabitants of 
these islands, but gradually gave way to the heavier- 
bodied ancestors of the present race; others consider 
that the history of the race has been forgotten through 
the lapse of ages ; while the more intelligent and better 
educated look upon the Menehunes as a mythical class 
of gnomes or dwarfs, and the account of their exploits 
as having been handed down by tradition for social 
entertainment, as other peoples relate fairy stories. 

In the Hawaiian legend of Kumuhonua, Fornander 
states that the Polynesians were designated as "the 


people, descendants from Menehune, son of Lua 
Nuu, etc. It disappeared as a national name so long 
ago, however, that subsequent legends have changed 
it to a term of reproach, representing them at times as 
a separate race, and sometimes as a race of dwarfs, 
skilful laborers, but artful and cunning." 

In the following account and selection of stories 
gathered from various native sources, as literal a ren- 
dition as possible has been observed by the translators 
for the better insight it gives of Hawaiian thought 
and character. 


The Menehunes were supposed to have been a won- 
derful people, small of stature and of great activity. 
They were always united in doing any service required 
of them. It was their rule that any work undertaken 
must be completed in one night, otherwise it would be 
left unfinished, as they did not labor twice on the same 
work; hence the origin of the saying: " He po hookahi, 
a ao ua pau" — in one night, and by dawn it is fin- 

There is no reliable history of the Menehunes. No 
one knows whence they came, though tradition says 
they were the original people of the Hawaiian Islands. 
They are thought to have been supernatural beings 
governed by some one higher in rank than themselves, 
whom they recognized as having power and authority 
over them, that assigned them to the mountains and 
hills where they lived permanently. They were said 
to be the only inhabitants of the islands up to the time 


of Papa and Wakea, and were invisible to every one 
but their own descendants, or those connected with 
them in some way. Many persons could hear the 
noise and hum of their voices, but the gift of see- 
ing them with the naked eye was denied to those 
not akin to them. They were always willing to do 
the bidding of their descendants, and their super- 
natural powers enabled them to perform some won- 
derful works. 


Pi was an ordinary man living in Waimea, Kauai, 
who wanted to construct a mano, or dam, across 
the Waimea River and a watercourse therefrom to a 
point near Kikiaola. Having settled upon the best 
locations for his proposed work, he went up to the 
mountains and ordered all the Menehunes that were 
living near Puukapele to prepare stones for the dam 
and watercourse. The Menehunes were portioned off 
for the work; some to gather stones, and others to cut 
them. All the material was ready in no time (mana- 
wa ole)) and Pi settled upon the night when the work 
was to be done. When the time came he went to the 
point where the dam was to be built, and waited. At 
the dead of night he heard the noise and hum of the 
voices of the Menehunes on their way to Kikiaola, 
each of whom was carrying a stone. The dam was 
duly constructed, every stone fitting in its proper 
place, and the stone auwai, or watercourse, also laid 
around the bend of Kikiaola. Before the break of 
day the work was completed, and the water of the 


Waimea River was turned by the dam into the water- 
course on the flat lands of Waimea. 

When the work was finished Pi served out food for 
the Menehunes, which consisted of shrimps (opae), this 
being the only kind to be had in sufficient quantity to 
supply each with a fish to himself. They were well 
supplied and satisfied, and at dawn returned to the 
mountains of Puukapele rejoicing, and the hum of 
their voices gave rise to the saying, "Wawa ka Mene- 
hune i Puukapele, ma Kauai > puoho ka manu o ka loko o 
Kawainui ma Koolaupoko, Oahu" — the hum of the 
voices of the Menehunes at Puukapele, Kauai, startled 
the birds of the pond of Kawainui, at Koolaupoko 

The auwai, or watercourse, of Pi is still to be seen 
at Kikiaola. 

At one time Pi also told the Menehunes to wall in 
a fish-pond at the bend of the Huleia River. They 
commenced work toward midnight, but at dawn the 
walls of the pond were not sufficiently finished to 
meet, so it was left incomplete, and has remained so 
to this day. 


Wahieloa, a chief, lived at Kalaikoi, Kipahulu, 
Maui. He took to him a wife named Hinahawea. 
In due time a boy was born to them, whom 
Hinahowana, the mother of Hinahawea, brought up 
under her own care at Alaenui. She called him 
Laka-a- wahieloa. He was greatly petted by his 
parents. One day his father went to Hawaii in search 


of the Ala-Koiula a Kane for a toy for his son, landing 
at Punaluu, Kau, Hawaii, where he was killed in a 
cave called Keana-a-Kaualehu. 

After a long absence Laka asked for his father, and 
his mother referred him to his grandmother, who, 
on being questioned, told him that his father went to 
Hawaii, and was supposed to be dead. Laka then 
asked for means by which he could search for his 

His grandmother replied: "Go to the mountains 
and look for the tree that has leaves shaped like the 
moon on the night of Hilo, or Hoaka; such is the 
tree for a canoe." 

Laka followed this advice, and went to the moun- 
tains to find the tree for his canoe. Finding a suit- 
able one, he commenced to cut in the morning, and 
by sundown he had felled it to the ground. This 
accomplished, he went home. Returning the next 
day, to his surprise he could not find his fallen tree, 
so he cut down another, with the same result. Laka 
was thus tricked for several days, and in his perplexity 
consulted again with his grandmother, who sent him 
oflF with the same advice as before, to look for the 
crescent-shaped leaf. 

He went to the mountains again and found the 
desired tree, but before cutting it he dug a big hole on 
the side where the Kalala-Kamahele would fall. Upon 
cutting the tree it fell right into the hole or trench, as 
designed; then he jumped into it and lay in waiting 
for the person or persons who were reelecting the 
trees he had cut down for his canoe. 



While thus waiting, he heard some one talking about 
raising the tree and returning it to its former position, 
followed by someone chanting as follows: 

E ka mano o ke Akua, 

Ke kini o ke Akua, 

Ka lebu o ke Akua, 

Ka lalani Akua, 

Ka pukui Akua! 

E na Akua o ke kuahiwi nei, 

I ka mauna, 

I ke kualono, 

I ka manowai la-e, 

E-iho! ! 

When this appeal ended there was a hum and noise, 
and in a short time (manawa ole) the place was filled 
with a band of people, who endeavored to lift the tree; 
but it would not move. Laka then jumped out from 
his place of hiding and caught hold of two of the men, 
Mokuhalii and Kapaaikee, and threatened to kill them 
for raising again the trees he had cut for his canoe. 
Mokuhalii then told Laka that if they were killed, 
nobody would be able to make a canoe for him, nor 
would anybody pull it to the beach, but if they were 
spared they would willingly do it for him, provided 
Laka would first build a big and long shed {halau) of 
sufficient size to hold the canoe, and prepare sufficient 
food for the men. Laka gladly consenting, released 
them and returned to his home and built a shed on 

1 O the four thousand gods, O gods of these woods, 

The forty thousand gods, Of the mountain, 

The four hundred thousand gods, And the knoll, 

The file of gods, At the water-dam, 

The assembly of gods ! Oh, come ! 


the level ground of Puhikau. Then he went up to 
the woods and saw the canoe, ready and complete. 
The Menehunes told Laka that it would be brought 
to the halau that night. At the dead of" night the hum 
of the voices of the Menehunes was heard; this was 
the commencement of the lifting of the canoe. It 
was not dragged, but held up by hand. The second 
hum of voices brought the canoe to Haloamekiei, at 
Pueo. And at the third hum the canoe was carefully 
laid down in the halau. Food and fish were there 
spread out for the workers, the ha of the taro for food, 
and the opae and oopu for fish. At dawn the Mene- 
hunes returned to their home. Kuahalau was the 
name of the halau, the remains of the foundation of 
which were to be seen a few years ago, but now it is 
ploughed over. The hole dug by Laka still exists. 


Kakae, a chief, lived at Wahiawa, Kukaniloko, Wai- 
alua, Oahu. One day his wife told him that she de- 
sired to go in search of her brother, Kahanaiakeakua, 
who was supposed to be living at Tahiti. Kakae 
thereupon ordered his man Kekupua to go into the 
woods and find a suitable tree and make a canoe for 
his wife for this foreign voyage. Kekupua, with a 
number of men under him, searched in the forest belt 
of Wahiawa, Helemano, and Waoala, as also through 
the woods of Koolau, without success. From Kahana 
they made a search through the mountains till they 
came to Kilohana, in Kalihi Valley, and from there 
to Waolani, in Nuuanu, where they slept in a cave. 


In the dead of night they heard the hum as of human 
voices, but were unable to discern any person, though 
the voices sounded close to them. At dawn silence 
reigned again, and when the sun arose, lo, and behold! 
there stood a large mound of stones, the setting of 
which resembled that of a heiau, or temple, the remains 
of which are said to be noticeable to this day. 

Kekupua and his men returned to their chief and 
reported their unsuccessful search for a suitable koa 
{Acacia koa) tree for the desired canoe, and related also 
the incident at Waolani. Kakae, being a descendant 
of the Menehunes, knew immediately the authors of 
the strange occurrence. He therefore instructed 
Kekupua to proceed to Makaho and Kamakela and to 
stay there till the night of Kane, then go up to Puunui 
and wait till hearing the hum and noise of the Mene- 
hunes, which would be the signal of their finishing the 
canoe. And thus it was; the Menehunes, havingfinished 
the canoe, were ready to pull it to the sea. He directed 
them to look sharp, and two men would be noticed 
holding the ropes at the pu (or head) of the canoe. 
One of them would leap from one side to the other; 
he was the director of the work and was called pale. 
There would be some men farther behind, holding the 
kawelewele, or guiding-ropes. They were the kahunas 
that superintended the construction of the canoe. He 
reminded them to remember these directions, and 
when they saw these men, to give them orders and 
show them the course to take in pulling the canoe to 
the sea. 

Kekupua followed all these instructions faithfully. 


He waited at Puunui till dusk, when he heard a hum 
as of many voices, and proceeding farther up near the 
slope of Alewa he saw these wonderful people. They 
were like ordinary human beings but diminutive. He 
directed them to pull the canoe along the nae, or 
farther side of the Puunui stream. By this course 
the canoe was brought down as far as Kaalaa, near 
Waikahalulu, where, when daylight came, they left 
their burden and returned to Waolani. The canoe 
was left in the ditch, where it remained for many 
generations, and was called Kawaa-a-Kekupua (Keku- 
pua's canoe), in honor of the servant of the chief 

Thus, even with the help of the Menehunes, the 
wife of Kakae was not satisfied in her desire. 


The Menehunes are credited with the construction 
of numerous heiaus (ancient temples) in various parts 
of the islands. 

The heiau of Mookini, near Honoipu, Kohala, is 
pointed out as an instance of their marvellous work. 
The place selected for the site of the temple was on 
a grassy plain. The stones in the nearest neighbor- 
hood were for some reason not deemed suitable for 
the work, so those of Pololu Valley, distant some 
twelve miles, were selected. Tradition says the 
Menehunes were placed in a line covering the entire 
distance from Pololu to Honoipu, whereby the stones 
were passed from hand to hand for the entire work. 
Work was begun at the quiet of night, and at cock- 


crow in the morning it was finished. Thus in one 
night the heiau of Mookini was built. 

Another temple of their erection was at Pepeekeo, 
Hilo, the peculiarity of the work being that the stones 
had been brought together by the residents of that part 
of the district, by direction of the chief, but that in one 
night, the Menehunes gathered together and built it. 
The chief and his people were surprised on coming 
the next morning to resume their labors, to find the 
heiau completed. 

There stands on the pali of Waikolu, near Kalau- 
papa, Molokai, a heiau that Hawaiians believe to have 
been constructed by no one else than the Menehunes. 
It is on the top of a ledge in the face of a perpendicular 
cliff, with a continuous inaccessible cliff behind it 
reaching hundreds of feet above. No one has ever 
been able to reach it either from above or from below; 
and the marvel is how the material, which appears to 
be seashore stones, was put in place. 



A KAAKA (laughter) is a projecting spur of the 
mountain range at the head of Manoa Valley, 
forming the ridge running back to and above Waiake- 
akua, "the water of the gods." Akaaka was united in 
marriage to Nalehuaakaaka, still represented by some 
lehua {Metrosideros polymorpha) bushes on the very 
brow of the spur or ridge. They had two children, 
twins, Kahaukani, a boy, and Kauakuahine, a girl. 
These children were adopted at birth by a chief, 
Kolowahi, and chiefess, Pohakukala, who were brother 
and sister, and cousins of Akaaka. The brother took 
charge of the boy, Kahaukani, a synonym for the 
Manoa wind; and Pohakukala the girl, Kauakuahine, 
meaning the famous Manoa rain. When the children 
were grown up, the foster parents determined that 
they should be united; and the children, having been 
brought up separately and in ignorance of their rela- 
tionship, made no objections. They were accordingly 
married and a girl was born to them, who was called 
Kahalaopuna. Thus Kolowahi and Pohakukala, by 
conspiring to unite the twin brother and sister, made 
permanent the union of rain and wind for which 



Manoa Valley is noted; and the fruit of such a union 
was the most beautiful woman of her time. So the 
Manoa girls, foster children of the Manoa rains and 
winds, have generally been supposed to have inherited 
the beauty of Kahalaopuna. 

A house was built for Kahalaopuna at Kahaiamano 
on the road to Waiakekua, where she lived with a few 
attendants. The house was surrounded by a fence of 
auki {dractena), and a puloulou (sign of kapu) was 
placed on each side of the gate, indicative of forbid- 
den ground. The puloulou were short, stout poles, 
each surmounted by a ball of white kapa cloth, and 
indicated that the person or persons inhabiting the 
premises so defined were of the highest rank, and 

Kahalaopuna was very beautiful from her earliest 
childhood. Her cheeks were so red and her face so 
bright that a glow emanated therefrom which shone 
through the thatch of her house when she was in ; a 
rosy light seemed to envelop the house, and bright 
rays seemed to play over it constantly. When she 
went to bathe in the spring below her house, the rays 
of light surrounded her like a halo. The natives 
maintain that this bright light is still occasionally seen 
at Kahaiamano, indicating that the spiritof Kahalaopuna 
is revisiting her old home. 

She was betrothed in childhood to Kauhi, the 
young chief of Kailua, in Koolau, whose parents were 
so sensible of the honor of the contemplated union of 
their son with the Princess of Manoa, who was 
deemed of a semi-supernatural descent, that they 


always sent the poi of Kailua and the fish of Kawai- 
nui for the girl's table. She was thus, as it were, 
brought up entirely on the food of her prospective 

When she was grown to young womanhood, she 
was so exquisitely beautiful that the people of the 
valley would make visits to the outer puloulou at the 
sacred precinct of Luaalea, the land adjoining Kahaia- 
mano, just to get a glimpse of the beauty as she went 
to and from the spring. In this way the fame of her 
surpassing loveliness was spread all over the valley, 
and came to the ears of two men, Kumauna and Kea- 
waa, both of whom were disfigured by a contraction of 
the lower eyelids, and were known as makahelei 
(drawn eyes). Neither of these men had e^er seen 
Kahalaopuna, but they fell in love with her from hear- 
say, and not daring to present themselves to her 
as suitors on account of their disfigurement, they 
would weave and deck themselves lets (wreaths) of 
maile (Alyxia oliv^formis), ginger, and ferns and go to 
Waikiki for surf-bathing. While there they would 
indulge in boasting of their conquest of the famous 
beauty, representing the leis with which they were 
decked as love-gifts from Kahalaopuna. Now, when 
the surf of Kalehuawehe at Waikiki was in proper 
condition, it would attract people from all parts of the 
island to enjoy the delightful sport. Kauhi, the 
betrothed of Kahalaopuna, was one of these. The 
time set for his marriage to Kahalaopuna was drawing 
near, and as yet he had not seen her, when the asser- 
tions of the two makahelei men came to his ears. 


These were repeated so frequently that Kauhi finally 
came to believe them, and they so filled him with 
jealous rage of his betrothed that he determined to 
kill her. He started for Manoa at dawn, and pro- 
ceeded as far as Mahinauli, in mid-valley, where 
he rested under a hala (Pandanus odoratissimus) tree 
that grew in the grove of wiliwili (Erythrina mono- 
spermd). He sat there some time, brooding over the 
fancied injury to himself, and nursing his wrath. 
Upon resuming his walk he broke off and carried 
along with him a bunch of hala nuts. It was quite 
noon when he reached Kahaiamano and presented 
himself before the house of Kahalaopuna. The latter 
had just awakened from a sleep, and was lying on 
a pile of mats facing the door, thinking of going to 
the spring, her usual bathing-place, when she per- 
ceived a stranger at the door. 

She looked at him some time and, recognizing him 
from oft repeated descriptions, asked him to enter ; 
but Kauhi refused, and asked her to come outside. The 
young girl had been so accustomed from early child- 
hood to consider herself as belonging to Kauhi, and of 
being indebted to him, as it were, for her daily food, 
that she obeyed him unhesitatingly. 

He perhaps intended to kill her then, but the girl's 
unhesitating obedience as well as her extreme loveli- 
ness made him hesitate for a while ; and after looking 
intently at her for some time he told her to go and 
bathe and then prepare herself to accompany him in a 
ramble about the woods. 

While Kahalaopuna was bathing, Kauhi remained 


moodily seated where she had left him, and watched 
the bright glow, like rainbow rays, playing above the 
spring. He was alternately rilled with jealousy, regret, 
and longing for the great beauty of the girl; but that 
did not make him relent in his dreadful purpose. He 
seemed to resent his betrothed's supposed infidelity 
the more because she had thrown herself away on such 
unworthy persons, who were, besides, ugly and disfig- 
ured, while he, Kauhi, was not only a person of rank 
and distinction, but possessed also of considerable manly 

When she was ready he motioned her to follow him, 
and turned to go without a word. They went across 
Kumakaha to Hualea, when the girl said, "Why don't 
you stay and have something to eat before we go?" 

He answered rather surlily, "I don't care to eat; I 
have no appetite." 

He looked so sternly at her as he said this that 
she cried out to him, "Are you annoyed with me? 
Have I displeased you in any way?" 

He only said, "Why, what have you done that 
would displease me?" 

He kept on his way, she following, till they came 
to a large stone in Aihualama, when he turned abruptly 
and, facing the young girl, looked at her with an 
expression of mingled longing and hate. At last, 
with a deep sigh, he said, "You are beautiful, my 
betrothed, but, as you have been false, you must die." 

The young girl looked up in surprise at these 
strange words, but saw only hatred and a deadly 
purpose in Kauhi's eyes; so she said: "If I have to die, 


why did you not kill me at home, so that my people 
could have buried my bones; but you brought me to 
the wild woods, and who will bury me? If you think 
I have been false to you, why not seek proof before 
believing it?" 

But Kauhi would not listen to her appeal. Per- 
haps it only served to remind him of what he consid- 
ered was his great loss. He struck her across the 
temple with the heavy bunch of hala nuts he had broken 
off at Mahinauli, and which he had been holding all 
the time. The blow killed the girl instantly, and 
Kauhi hastily dug a hole under the side of the rock 
and buried her; then he started down the valley 
toward Waikiki. 

As soon as he was gone, a large owl, who was a god, 
and a relative of Kahalaopuna, and had followed her 
from home, immediately set to digging the body out; 
which done, it brushed the dirt carefully off with its 
wings and, breathing into the girl's nostrils, restored 
her to life. It rubbed its face against the bruise on 
the temple, and healed it immediately. Kauhi had 
not advanced very far on his way when he heard the 
voice of Kahalaopuna singing a lament for his unkind- 
ness, and beseeching him to believe her, or, at least, 
prove his accusation. 

Hearing her voice, Kauhi returned, and, seeing the 
owl flying above her, recognized the means of her 
resurrection; and, going up to the girl, ordered her to 
follow him. They went up the side of the ridge 
which divides Manoa Valley from Nuuanu. It was 
hard work for the tenderly nurtured maiden to climb 


the steep mountain ridge, at one time through a 
thorny tangle of underbrush, and at another clinging 
against the bare face of the rocks, holding on to swing- 
ing vines for support. Kauhi never offered to assist 
her, but kept on ahead, only looking back occasion- 
ally to see that she followed. When they arrived at 
the summit of the divide she was all scratched and 
bruised, and her pa-u (skirt) in tatters. Seating herself 
on a stone to regain her breath, she asked Kauhi where 
they were going. He never answered, but struck her 
again with the hala branch, killing her instantly, as 
before. He then dug a hole near where she lay, 
and buried her, and started for Waikiki by way of the 
Kakea ridge. He was no sooner out of sight than the 
owl again scratched the dirt away and restored the 
girl, as before. Again she followed and sang a song 
of love and regret for her lover's anger, and pleaded 
with him to lay aside his unjust suspicions. On hear- 
ing her voice again, Kauhi returned and ordered her to 
follow him. They descended into Nuuanu Valley, at 
Kaniakapupu, and crossed over to Waolani ridge, 
where he again killed and buried the faithful girl, who 
was again restored by the owl. When he was on his 
way back, as before, she sang a song, describing the 
perils and difficulties of the way traversed by them, and 
ended by pleading for pardon for the unknown fault. 
The wretched man, on hearing her voice again, was 
very angry; and his repeated acts of cruelty and the 
suffering endured by the girl, far from softening his 
heart, only served to render him more brutal, and to 
extinguish what little spark of kindly feeling he might 


have had originally. His only thought was to kill 
her for good, and thus obtain some satisfaction for his 
wasted poi and fish. He returned to her and ordered 
her, as before, to follow him, and started for Kilohana, 
at the head of Kalihi Valley, where he again killed her. 
She was again restored by the owl, and made her 
resurrection known by singing to her cruel lover. 
He this time took her across gulches, ravines, and 
plains, until they arrived at Pohakea, on the Ewa slope 
of the Kaala Mountains, where he killed her and bur- 
ied her under a large koa {Acacia koa) tree. The faithful 
owl tried to scrape the dirt away, so as to get at the 
body of the girl, but his claws became entangled in the 
numerous roots and rootlets which Kauhi had been 
careful not to cut away. The more the owl scratched, 
the more deeply tangled he got, and, finally, with 
bruised claws and ruffled feathers, he had to give up 
the idea of rescuing the girl; and perhaps he thought 
it useless, as she would be sure to make her resurrec- 
tion known to Kauhi. So the owl left, and followed 
Kauhi on his return to Waikiki. 

There had been another witness to Kauhi's cruel- 
ties, and that was Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwickensis), 
a little green bird, a cousin to Kahalaopuna. As soon 
as this bird saw that the owl had deserted the body of 
Kahalaopuna, it flew straight toKahaukani andKauakua- 
hine, and told them of all that had happened. The 
girl had been missed, but, as some of the servants had 
recognized Kauhi, and had seen them leave together 
for what they supposed was a ramble in the adjoining 
woods, no great anxiety had been felt, as yet. But 


when the little bird told his tale, there was great con- 
sternation, and even positive disbelief; for, how could 
any one in his senses, they argued, be guilty of such 
cruelty to such a lovely, innocent being, and one, too, 
belonging entirely to himself. 

In the meantime, the spirit of the murdered girl 
discovered itself to a party who were passing by; and 
one of them, a young man, moved with compassion, 
went to the tree indicated by the spirit, and, removing 
the dirt and roots, found the body, still warm. He 
wrapped it in his kihei (shoulder scarf), and then cov- 
ered it entirely with maile, ferns, and ginger, and, 
making a haawe> or back-load, of it, carried it to his 
home at Kamoiliili. There, he submitted the body 
to his elder brother, who called upon two spirit sisters 
of theirs, with whose aid they finally succeeded in 
restoring it to life. In the course of the treatment she 
was frequently taken to an underground water-cave, 
called Mauoki, for the Kakelekele (hydropathic cure). 
The water-cave has ever since been known as the 
"Water of Kahalaopuna." 

The young man who had rescued her from the 
grave naturally wanted her to become his bride; but 
the girl refused, saying that as long as Kauhi lived 
she was his, and none other's, as her very body was, 
as it were, nourished on his food, and was as much his 
property as the food had been. 

The elder brother then counselled the younger to 
seek, in some way, the death of Kauhi. To this end 
they conspired with the parents of Kahalaopuna to 
keep her last resurrection secret. The young man 


then set to work to learn all the meles Kahalaopuna 
had sung to her lover during that fatal journey. When 
he knew these songs well, he sought the kilu (play, 
or game) houses of the King and high chiefs, where 
Kauhi was sure to be found. 

One day, when Kauhi was playing, this young man 
placed himself on the opposite side, and as Kauhi 
ceased, took up the kilu and chanted the first of 
Kahalaopuna's meles. 

Kauhi was very much surprised, and contrary to 
the etiquette of the game of kilu, stopped him in his 
play to ask him where he had learned that song. 
The young man answered he had learned it from 
Kahalaopuna, the famous Manoa beauty, who was 
a friend of his sister's and who was now on a visit at 
their house. Kauhi, knowing the owl had deserted 
the body of the girl, felt certain that she was really 
dead, and accused the other of telling a lie. This led 
to an angry and stormy scene, when the antagonists 
were parted by orders of the King. 

The next night found them both at the kilu house, 
when the second of Kahalaopuna's songs was sung, 
and another angry discussion took place. Again they 
were separated by others. On the third night, the 
third song having been sung, the dispute between 
the young men became so violent that Kauhi told the 
young man that the Kahalaopuna he knew must be 
an impostor, as the real person of that name was dead, 
to his certain knowledge. He dared him to produce 
the young woman whom he had been representing as 
Kahalaopuna; and should she not prove to be the 


genuine one then his life should be the forfeit, and on 
the other hand, if it should be the real one, then he, 
Kauhi, should be declared the liar and pay for his 
insults to the other with his life. 

This was just what the young man had been 
scheming to compass, and he quickly assented to the 
challenge, calling on the King and chiefs to take 
notice of the terms of agreement, and to see that they 
were enforced. 

On the appointed day Kahalaopuna went to 
Waikiki, attended by her parents, relatives, servants, 
and the two spirit sisters, who had assumed human 
form for that day so as to accompany their friend and 
advise her in case of necessity. Akaaka, the grand- 
father, who had been residing in Waikiki some little 
time previous to the dispute between the young men, 
was appointed one of the judges at the approach- 
ing trial. 

Kauhi had consulted the priests and sorcerers of his 
family as to the possibility of the murdered girl hav- 
ing assumed human shape for the purpose of working 
him some injury. Kaea, a famous priest and seer 
of his family, told him to have the large leaves of the 
a-pe (Calladium costatum) spread where Kahalaopuna 
and party were to be seated. If she was a spirit, 
she would not be able to tear the a-pe leaf on which 
she would be seated, but if human, the leaf or leaves 
would be torn. With the permission of the King, 
this was done. The latter, surrounded by the highest 
chiefs and a vast assemblage from all parts of the 
island, was there to witness the test. 


When Kahalaopuna and party were on the road 
to the scene of the test, her spirit friends informed her 
of the a-pe leaves, and advised her to trample on them 
so as to tear them as much as possible, as they, being 
spirits, would be unable to tear the leaves on which 
they should be seated, and if any one's attention were 
drawn to them, they would be found out and killed 
by the poe po-i uhane (spirit catchers). 

The young girl faithfully performed what was 
required of her. Kaea, on seeing the torn leaves, 
remarked that she was evidently human, but that he 
felt the presence of spirits, and would watch for them, 
feeling sure they were in some way connected with 
the girl. Akaaka then told him to look in a calabash 
of water, when he would in all probability see the 
spirits. The seer, in his eagerness to unravel the 
mystery, forgot his usual caution and ordered a vessel 
of water to be brought, and, looking in, he saw only 
his own reflection. Akaaka at that moment caught 
the reflection of the seer .(which was his spirit), and 
crushed it between his palms, and at that moment 
the seer dropped down dead. Akaaka now turned 
around and opened his arms 'and embraced Kahalao- 
puna, thus acknowledging her as his own beloved 

The King now demanded of the girl and of Kauhi 
an account of all that had happened between them, 
and of the reported death of the maiden. They both 
told their stories, Kauhi ascribing his anger to hearing 
the assertions of the two disfigured men, Kumauna 
and Keawaa. These two, on being confronted with 


the girl, acknowledged never having seen her before, 
and that all their words had been idle boastings. The 
King then said : "As your fun has cost this innocent 
girl so much suffering, it is my will that you two and 
Kauhi suffer death at once, as a matter of justice; 
and if your gods are powerful enough to restore you, 
so much the better for you." 

Two large imus (ground ovens) had been heated by 
the followers of the young men, in anticipation of the 
possible fate of either, and Kauhi, with the two 
mischief-makers and such of their respective followers 
and retainers as preferred to die with their chiefs, were 
baked therein. 

The greater number of Kauhi's people were so 
incensed with his cruelty to the lovely young girl that 
they transferred their allegiance to her, offering them- 
selves for her vassals as restitution, in a measure, for 
the undeserved sufferings borne by her at the hands 
of their cruel chief. 

The King gave her for a bride to the young man 
who had not only saved her, but had been the means 
of avenging her wrongs. 

The imus in which Kauhi and his companions were 
baked were on the side of the stream of Apuakehau, 
in the famous Ulukou grove, and very near the sea. 
The night following, a great tidal wave, sent in by 
a powerful old shark god, a relative of Kauhi's, swept 
over the site of the two ovens, and in the morning 
it was seen that their contents had disappeared. The 
bones had been taken by the old shark into the sea. 
The chiefs, Kumauna and Keawaa, were, through the 


power of their family gods, transformed into the two 
mountain peaks on the eastern corner of Manoa 
Valley, while Kauhi and his followers were turned 
into sharks. 

Kahalaopuna lived happily with her husband for 
about two years. Her grandfather, knowing of Kauhi's 
transformation, and aware of his vindictive nature, 
strictly forbade her from ever going into the sea. She 
remembered and heeded the warning during those 
years, but one day, her husband and all their men 
having gone to Manoa to cultivate kalo {Colocasia 
antiquorum), she was left alone with her maid servants. 

The surf on that day was in fine sporting condi- 
tion, and a number of young women were surf-riding, 
and Kahalaopuna longed to be with them. Forgetting 
the warning, as soon as her mother fell asleep she 
slipped out with one of her maids and swam out on a 
surf-board. This was Kauhi's opportunity, and as 
soon as she was fairly outside the reef he bit her 
in two and held the upper half of the body up out 
of the water, so that all the surf-bathers would see 
and know that he had at last obtained his revenge. 

Immediately on her death the spirit of the young 
woman went back and told her sleeping mother 
of what had befallen her. The latter woke up, and, 
missing her, gave the alarm. This was soon con- 
firmed by the terrified surf-bathers, who had all fled 
ashore at seeing the terrible fate of Kahalaopuna. 
Canoes were launched and manned, and chase given 
to the shark and his prey, which could be easily 
tracked by the blood. 


He swam just far enough below the surface of the 
water to be visible, and yet too far to be reached with 
effect by the fishing-spears of the pursuers. He led 
them a long chase to Waianae; then, in a sandy open- 
ing in the bottom of the sea, where everything was 
visible to the pursuers, he ate up the young woman, 
so that she could never again be restored to this life. 

Her parents, on hearing of her end, retired to Manoa 
Valley, and gave up their human life, resolving them- 
selves into their supernatural elements. Kahaukani, 
the father, is known as the Manoa wind, but his usual 
and visible form is the grove of ha-u (hibiscus) 
trees, below Kahaiamano. Kauakuahine, the mother, 
assumed her rain form, and is very often to be met 
with about the former home of her beloved child. 

The grandparents also gave up their human forms, 
and returned, the one to his mountain form, and the 
other into the lehua bushes still to be met with on the 
very brow of the hill, where they keep watch over 
the old home of their petted and adored grandchild. 




np^HERE formerly lived on the Kaala Mountains 
a chief by the name of Kahaakea. He had two 
children, a boy and a girl, twins, whose mother had 
died at their birth. The brother was called Kauawaa- 
hila (Waahila Rain), and the girl Kauakiowao (Mountain 
Mist). Kahaakea was very tenderly attached to his 
motherless children, and after a while took to himself 
a wife, thinking thus to provide his children with a 
mother's care and love. This wife was called Hawea 
and had a boy by her former husband. This boy was 
deformed and ugly, while the twins were very beau- 
tiful. The stepmother was jealous of their beauty, and 
resented the universal admiration expressed for them, 
while no one noticed her boy except with looks of 
aversion. She was very considerate toward the twins 
when their father was present, but hated and detested 
them most violently. When they were about ten years 
old their father had occasion to go to Hawaii, and had 
to remain away a long time. He felt perfectly safe in 
leaving his children with his wife, as she had always 
feigned great love for them, and had successfully con- 
cealed from him her real feelings in regard to them. 

+ 33 


But as soon as he was fairly away she commenced a 
series of petty persecutions of the poor children. 

It seems the mother of the children had been "uhae 
ia" at her death. That is, certain prayers, invoca- 
tions, fasting, and humiliation had been performed by 
certain relatives of the deceased, and quantities of pre- 
pared awa, black, unblemished pig, red fish, and all 
the customary food of the gods, had been prepared and 
offered with the object of strengthening the spirit of 
the departed and of attracting it strongly, as well as 
giving it a sort of power and control over mundane 
affairs and events. So when Hawea began to persecute 
her stepchildren, the spirit of their own mother would 
assist and protect them. 

The persecutions of the stepmother at last became 
unendurable to the twins. She not only deprived 
them of food, clothing, and water, but subjected them 
besides to all sorts of indignities and humiliations. 
Driven to desperation, they fled to Konahuanui, the 
mountain peak above the Pali of Nuuanu; but were 
soon discovered and driven away from there by the 
cruel Hawea. They then went to the head of Manoa 
Valley. The stepmother was not at all pleased at 
their getting out of the way of her daily persecutions, 
and searched for them everywhere. She finally tracked 
them by the constant appearance of rainbows at the 
head of Manoa Valley, those unfailing attendants of 
rain and mist. The children were again driven away 
and told to return to Kaala, where they would be 
constantly under her eye; but they ran and hid them- 
selves in a small cave on the side of the hill of Kukaoo, 


whose top is crowned by the temple of the Mene- 
hunes. Here they lived some time and cultivated a 
patch of sweet potatoes, their food at this time being 
grasshoppers and greens. The greens were the leaves 
and the tender shoots of the popolo, aheahea, pakai, 
laulele and potato vines, cooked by rolling hot stones 
around and among them in a covered gourd. This is 
called the puholoholo. 

When their potato tubers were fit to be eaten, the 
brother (Waahila Rain) made a double imu (oven), 
having a kapu, or sacred side, for his food and a noa, or 
free side, for his sister. The little cave that was their 
dwelling was also divided in two, a sacred and a free 
part, respectively, for brother and sister. The cave can 
still be seen, and the wall of stone dividing it in two 
was still intact a few years ago, as also was the double 
imu. In olden times it was tabooed to females to 
appear at any eating-place of the males. 

When their crops were fairly ripe, the stepmother 
found them again, and drove them away from their 
cave, she appropriating the fruit of their labors. The 
children fled to the rocky hills just back of Punahou, 
where they found two small caves, which the brother 
and sister occupied, respectively, as dwellings. The 
rolling plains and small ravines of the surrounding 
country, and of what was later known as the Punahou 
pasture, were not then covered with manienie grass, 
but with the indigenous shrubs and bushes, tall ilimas, 
aheaheas, popolo, etc., making close thickets, with 
here and there open spaces covered with manienie- 
akiaki, the valuable medicinal grass of the olden times. 


These shrubs and bushes either bore edible fruit or 
flowers, or the leaves and tender shoots made nourishing 
and satisfying food when cooked in the way previously 
described. The poor children lived on these and 
grasshoppers, and sometimes wild fowl. 

One day the sister, Kauakiowao, told her brother 
that she wanted to bathe, and complained of their 
having taken up their residence in a place where no 
water could be found. Her brother hushed her com- 
plaint by telling her that it was a safe place, and one 
where their stepmother would not be likely to look 
for them, but he would try to get her some water. In 
his trips around the neighborhood for fruit and greens 
he had noticed a large rain-water pond to the east of 
the hill on which they dwelt. This pond was called 
Kanawai. Here he sometimes came to snare wild 
ducks. He also had met and knew the Kakea water 
god, a moo, who had charge of and controlled all the 
water sources of Manoa and Makiki Valleys. This 
god was one of the ancestors of the children on the 
mother's side, and was on the best of terms with 
Waahila rain. The boy paid him a visit, and asked 
him to assist him to open a watercourse from the pond 
of Kanawai to a place he indicated in front of 
and below the caves inhabited by himself and his 
sister. The old water god not only consented to help 
his young relative, but promised to divide the water 
supply of the neighboring Wailele spring, and let it 
run into the watercourse that the boy would make, 
thus insuring its permanence. 

Waahila Rain then went to the pond of Kanawai and 


dived under, the water god causing a passage to open 
underground to the spot indicated, and swam through 
the water underground till he came out at the place 
now known as the Punahou Spring. The force of the 
rushing waters as they burst through the ground soon 
sufficed to make a small basin, which the boy proceeded 
to bank and wall up, leaving a narrow outlet for the sur- 
plus waters. With the invisible help of the old water 
god, he immediately set to work to excavate a good- 
sized pond for his sister to swim in, and when she 
awoke from a noonday nap, she was astonished to 
behold a lovely sheet of water where, in the morning, 
was only dry land. Her brother was swimming and 
splashing about in it, and gayly called to his sister to 
come and try her bathing-place. 

Kauawaahila afterward made some kalo patches, 
and people, attracted by the water and consequent fer- 
tility of the place, came and settled about, voluntarily 
offering themselves as vassals to the twins. More and 
more kalo patches were excavated, and the place became 
a thriving settlement. The spring became known as 
Ka Punahou (the new spring), and gave its name to the 
surrounding place. 

About this time Kahaakea returned, and hearing of 
the persecutions to which his beloved children had been 
subjected, killed Hawea and then himself. Rocky Hill, 
the home of the children, was called after him, and is 
known by that name to the present day. Hawea has 
ever since then been a synonym in the Hawaiian mind 
for a cruel stepmother. 

The Mountain Mist and Waahila Rain afterward 


returned to the home of their infancy, Kaala, where they 
would stay a while, occasionally visiting Konahuanui 
and upper Manoa Valley, and may be met with in 
these places at the present day. 

They also occasionally visited Punahou, which was 
under their especial care and protection; but when the 
land and spring passed into the hands of foreigners, 
who did not pay homage to the twins, and who allowed 
the springs to be defiled by the washing of unclean 
articles and by the bathing of unclean persons, the twins 
indignantly left the place, and retired to the head of 
Manoa Valley. 

They sometimes pass swiftly over their old home 
on their way to Kaala, or Konahuanui, and on such 
occasions will sometimes linger sorrowfully for a few 
minutes about Rocky Hill. The rain-water pond of 
Kanawai is now always dry, as the shrubs and bushes 
which supplied the food of the twins favored of the 
gods have disappeared. Old natives say that there is 
now no inducement for the gentle rain of the Uakiowao 
and Uawaahila to visit those bare hills and plains, as 
they would find no food there. 




^\N the plateau lying between Ewa and Waialua, on 
^^^ the island of Oahu, and about a mile off, and 
mauka of the Kaukonahua bridge, is the historical 
place called Kukaniloko. This was the ancient birth- 
place of the Oahu kings and rulers. It was incumbent 
on all women of the royal line to retire to this place 
when about to give birth to a child, on pain of for- 
feiting the rank, privileges, and prerogatives of her 
expected offspring, should that event happen in a less 
sacred place. 

The stones were still standing some years /ago, and 
perhaps are yet undisturbed, where the royal accouche- 
ments took place. In ancient times this locality was 
taboo ground, for here the high priest of the island had 
his headquarters. Himself descended from the chief 
families, and being, in many instances, an uncle or 
younger brother of the reigning king, or connected by 
marriage with those of the royal line, and being also 
at the head of a numerous, well organized, and power- 
ful priesthood, his influence was hardly second to that 
of the king, and in some matters his authority was 

1 39 


A few miles mauka of Kukaniloko, toward the Wai- 
mea Mountains, is Helemano, where the last of the 
cannibal chiefs from the South Seas finally settled when 
driven from the plains of Mokuleia and Waialua by 
the inhabitants of those districts; for the people had 
been exasperated by the frequent requisitions on the 
kamaainas (original inhabitants) by the stranger chiefs 
to furnish material for their cannibal feasts. 

To the east of Helemano, and about the same dis- 
tance from Kukaniloko, is Oahunui (Greater Oahu), 
another historical place. This was the residence of the 
kings of the island. Tradition has it that previous to 
the advent of the cannibal strangers the place was 
known by another name. 

When the Lo Aikanaka, as the last of the man- 
eating chiefs are called, were constrained to take up 
their residence in upper Helemano, a district just out- 
side of the boundaries of those reserved for the royal 
and priestly residences, a young man called Oahunui was 
king. An elder sister named Kilikiliula, who had been 
as a mother to him, was supposed to share equally 
with him the royal power and prerogative. This sister 
was married to a chief named Lehuanui, of the priestly 
line, but one not otherwise directly connected with 
royalty, and was the mother of three children; the two 
eldest being boys and the youngest a girl. They all 
lived together in the royal enclosure, but in separate 
houses, according to ancient custom. 

Now, the Lo Aikanaka, on establishing themselves 
in upper Helemano, had at first behaved very well. 
They had been circumspect and prudent in their inter- 


course with the royal retainers, and had visited the 
young King to render their homage with every appear- 
ance of humility. 

Oahunui was quite captivated by the plausible, suave 
manners of the ingratiating southern chief and those of 
his immediate retainers, and he invited them to a feast. 

This civility was reciprocated, and the King dined 
with the strangers. Here it was strongly suspected 
that the dish of honor placed before the King was 
human flesh, served under the guise of pork. 

The King found the dish very much to his liking, 
and intimated to the Lo Aikanaka chief that his aipuu- 
puu (chief cook or steward) understood the preparation 
and cooking of pork better than the royal cook did. 

The Lo Aikanaka took the hint, and the young 
King became a very frequent guest at the Southerner's 
board — or rather, mat table. Some excuse or other 
would be given to invite the royal guest, such as a 
challenge to the King to a game of konane (a game 
like checkers); or a contest of skill in the different 
athletic and warlike sports would be arranged, and 
Oahunui would be asked to be the judge, or simply 
invited to view them. As a matter of course, it would 
be expected that the King would remain after the sports 
and partake of food when on friendly visits of this 
nature. Thus with one excuse or another he spent a 
great deal of his time with his new subjects and friends. 

To supply the particular dainty craved by the royal 
visitor, the Lo Aikanaka had to send out warriors to 
the passes leading to Waianae from Lihue and Kalena, 
and also to the lonely pathway leading up to Kalakini, 


on the Waimea side, there to lie in ambush for any- 
lone traveller, or belated person after la-i, aaho, or 
ferns. Such a one would fall an easy prey to the Lo 
Aikanaka stalwarts, skilful in the art of the lua (to kill 
by breaking the bones). 

This went on for some time, until the unaccountable 
disappearance of so many people began to be connected 
with the frequent entertainments by the southern chief. 
Oahunui's subjects began to hint that their young King 
had acquired the taste for human flesh at these feasts, 
and that it was to gratify his unnatural appetite for the 
horrid dish that he paid his frequent visits to those 
who were his inferiors, contrary to all royal precedent. 

The people's disapproval of the intimacy of Oahu- 
nui with his new friends was expressed more and more 
openly, and the murmurs of discontent grew loud and 
deep. His chiefs and high priest became alarmed, and 
begged him to discontinue his visits, or they would 
not be answerable for the consequences. The King 
was thereby forced to heed their admonitions and 
promised to keep away from Lo's, and did so for quite 
a while. 

Now, all the male members of the royal family ate 
their meals with the King when he was at home. 
This included, among others, Lehuanui, his sister's 
husband, and their two sons — healthy, chubby little 
lads of about eight and six years of age. One day 
after breakfast, as the roar of the surf at Waialua could 
be distinctly heard, the King remarked that the fish of 
Ukoa pond at Waialua must be pressing on to the 
makaha (floodgates) and he would like some aholehole. 


This observation really meant a command to his 
brother-in-law to go and get the fish, as he was the 
highest chief present except his two royal nephews, too 
small to assume such duties. 

Lehuanui, Kilikiliula's husband, accordingly went 
to Waialua with a few of his own family retainers and 
a number of those belonging to the King. They 
found the fish packed thick at the makaha, and were 
soon busily engaged in scooping out, cleaning, and 
salting them. It was quite late at night when Lehua- 
nui, fatigued with the labors of the day, lay down to 
rest. He had been asleep but a short time when he 
seemed to see his two sons standing by his head. The 
eldest spoke to him: "Why do you sleep, my father? 
While you are down here we are being eaten by your 
brother-in-law, the King. We were cooked and eaten 
up, and our skulls are now hanging in a net from a 
branch of the lehua-tree you are called after, and the 
rest of our bones are tied in a bundle and buried under 
the tree by the big root running to the setting sun." 

Then they seemed to fade away, and Lehuanui 
started up, shivering with fear. He hardly knew 
whether he had been dreaming or had actually seen 
an apparition of his little sons. He had no doubt 
they were dead, and as he remembered all the talk and 
innuendoes about the King's supposed reasons for 
visiting the strangers and the enforced cessation of 
those visits at the urgent request of the high priest 
and the chiefs, he came to the conclusion that the 
King had expressed a desire for fish in his presence 
only to send him out of the way. He reasoned that 


no doubt the King had noticed the chubby forms and 
rounded limbs of the little lads, and being debarred a 
chance of partaking surreptitiously of human flesh, 
had compelled his servants to kill, cook, and serve up 
his own nephews. In satisfying his depraved appe- 
tite, he had also got rid of two who might become 
formidable rivals ; for it was quite within the possibili- 
ties that the priests and chiefs in the near future, 
should he be suspected of a desire for a further indul- 
gence in cannibal diet, might depose him, and proclaim 
either one of the young nephews his successor. 

The father was so troubled that he aroused his 
immediate body servant, and the two left Waialua for 
home shortly after midnight. They arrived at the 
royal enclosure at dawn, and went first to the lehua- 
tree spoken of by the apparition of the child, and on 
looking up amid the branches, sure enough there 
dangled two little skulls in a large-meshed fishing-net. 
Lehuanui then stooped down and scraped away the 
leaves and loose dirt from the root indicated, and out 
rolled a bundle of tapa, which on being opened was 
found to contain the bones of two children. The 
father reached up for the net containing the skulls, and 
putting the bundle of tapa in it, tied the net around 
his neck. The servant stood by, a silent and grieved 
spectator of a scene whose meaning he fully under- 

The father procured a stone adze and went to the 
King's sleeping-house, the servant still following. 
Here every one but an old woman tending the kukui- 
nut candle was asleep. Oahunui was stretched out on 


a pile of soft mats covered with his paiula> the royal red 
kapa of old. The cruel wretch had eaten to excess of 
the hateful dish he craved, and having accompanied it 
with copious draughts of awa juice, was in a heavy, 
drunken sleep. 

Lehuanui stood over him, adze in hand, and called, 
"O King, where are my children?" The stupefied 
King only stirred uneasily, and would not, or could 
not, awake. Lehuanui called him three times, and 
the sight of the drunken brute, gorged with his flesh 
and blood, so enraged the father that he struck at 
Oahunui's neck with his stone adze, and severed the 
head from the body at one blow. 

The father and husband then strode to his own 
sleeping-house, where his wife lay asleep with their 
youngest child in her arms. He aroused her and 
asked for his boys. The mother could only weep, 
without answering. He upbraided her for her devo- 
tion to her brother, and for having tamely surrendered 
her children to satisfy the appetite of the inhuman 
monster. He reminded her that she had equal power 
with her brother, and that the latter was very un- 
popular, and had she chosen to resist his demands and 
.called on the retainers to defend her children, the 
King would have been killed and her children saved. 

He then informed her that, as she had given up his 
children to be killed for her brother, he had killed him 
in retaliation, and, saying, <c You have preferred your 
brother to me and mine, so you will see no more of me 
and mine," he tore the sleeping child from her arms 
and turned to leave the house. 


The poor wife and mother followed, and, flinging 
herself on her husband, attempted to detain him 
by clinging to his knees ; but the father, crazed by his 
loss and the thought of her greater affection for a 
cruel, inhuman brother than for her own children, 
struck at her with all his might, exclaiming, " Well, 
then, follow your brother," and rushed away, followed 
by all his retainers. 

Kilikiliula fell on the side of the stream opposite to 
where the lehua-tree stood, and is said to have turned 
to stone. The stone is pointed out to this day, bal- 
anced on the hillside of the ravine formed by the 
stream, and is one of the objects for the Hawaiian 

The headless body of Oahunui lay where he was 
killed, abandoned by every one. The story runs that 
in process of time it also turned to stone, as a witness 
to the anger of the gods and their detestation of his 
horrible crime. All the servants who had in any way 
been concerned, in obedience to royal mandate, in 
killing and cooking the young princes were, at the 
death of Kilikiliula, likewise turned to stone, just as 
they were, in the various positions of crouching, kneel- 
ing, or sitting. All the rest of the royal retainers, with 
the lesser chiefs and guards, fled in fear and disgust from 
the place, and thus the once sacred royal home of the 
Oahuan chiefs was abandoned and deserted. 

The great god Kane's curse, it is believed, still 
hangs over the desolate spot, in proof of which it is 
asserted that, although all this happened hundreds of 
years ago, no one has ever lived there since. 





TTLEIO was a kukini (trained runner) in the service 
"^ of Kakaalaneo, King of Maui, several runners 
being always kept by each king or alii of consequence. 
These kukinis, when sent on any errand, always took 
a direct line for their destination, climbing hills with 
the agility of goats, jumping over rocks and streams, 
and leaping from precipices. They were so fleet of 
foot that the common illustration of the fact among 
thenatives was the saying that when a kukini was sent on 
an errand that would ordinarily take a day and a night, 
fish wrapped in ki leaves (known as lawalu), if put on 
the fire on his starting, would not be cooked suffi- 
ciently to be turned before he would be back. Being 
so serviceable to the aliis, kukinis always enjoyed a 
high degree of consideration, freedom, and immunity 
from the strict etiquette and unwritten laws of a 
Hawaiian court. There was hardly anything so 
valuable in their master's possession that they could 
not have it if they wished. 

Eleio was sent to Hana to fetch awa for the King, 



and was expected to be back in time for the King's 
supper. Kakaalaneo was then living at Lahaina. 
Now, Eleio was not only a kukini, but he was also a 
kahuna, and had been initiated in the ceremonies and 
observances by which he was enabled to see spirits or 
wraiths, and was skilled in medicines, charms, etc., 
and could return a wandering spirit to its body unless 
decomposition had set in. 

Soon after leaving Olowalu, and as he commenced 
the ascent of Aalaloloa, he saw a beautiful young 
woman ahead of him. He naturally hastened his steps, 
intending to overtake such a charming fellow-traveller; 
but, do what he would, she kept always just so far 
ahead of him. Being the fleetest and most renowned 
kukini of his time, it roused his professional pride to 
be outrun by a woman, even if only for a short dis- 
tance ; so he was determined to catch her, and he gave 
himself entirely to that effort. The young woman led 
him a weary chase over rocks, hills, mountains, deep 
ravines, precipices, and dark streams, till they came to 
the Lae (cape) of Hanamanuloa at Kahikinui, beyond 
Kaupo, when he caught her just at the entrance to 
a puoa. A puoa was a kind of tower, generally of 
bamboo, with a platform half-way up, on which the 
dead bodies of persons of distinction belonging to 
certain families or classes were exposed to the ele- 

When Eleio caught the young woman she turned 
to him and cried: "Let me live! I am not human, 
but a spirit, and inside this inclosure is my dwelling." 

He answered: "I have been aware for some time 


of your being a spirit. No human being could have 
so outrun me." 

She then said: "Let us be friends. In yonder 
house live my parents and relatives. Go to them and 
ask for a hog, kapas, some fine mats, and a feather 
cloak. Describe me to them and tell them that I give 
all those things to you. The feather cloak is unfin- 
ished. It is now only a fathom and a half square, 
and was intended to be two fathoms. There are 
enough feathers and netting in the house to finish it. 
Tell them to finish it for you." The spirit then dis- 

Eleio entered the puoa, climbed on to the platform, 
and saw the dead body of the girl. She was in every 
way as beautiful as the spirit had appeared to him, and 
apparently decomposition had not yet set in. He left 
the puoa and hurried to the house pointed out by the 
spirit as that of her friends, and saw a woman wailing, 
whom, from the resemblance, he at once knew to be 
the mother of the girl; so he saluted her with an 
aloha. He then said: "I am a stranger here, but I 
had a travelling companion who guided me to yonder 
puoa and then disappeared." At these strange words 
the woman stopped wailing and called to her husband, 
to whom she repeated what the stranger had said. 
The latter then asked : "Does this house belong to 

Husband and wife, wondering, answered at once : 
"It does." 

"Then," said Eleio, "my message is to you. My 
travelling companion has a hog a fathom in length in 


your care; also a pile of fine kapas of Paiula and 
others of fine quality ; also a pile of mats and an 
unfinished feather cloak, now a fathom and a half in 
length, which you are to finish, the materials being in 
the house. All these things she has given to me, and 
sent me to you for them." Then he began to describe 
the young woman. Both parents recognized the 
truthfulness of the description, and willingly agreed to 
give up the things which their beloved daughter must 
have herself given away. But when they spoke of 
killing the hog and making an ahaaina (feast) for him, 
whom they had immediately resolved to adopt as a 
son, he said: "Wait a little and let me ask: Are all 
these people I see around this place your friends?" 

They both answered: "They are our relatives — 
uncles, aunts, and cousins to the spirit, who seems to 
have adopted you either as husband or brother." 

"Will they do your bidding in everything?" he 

They answered that they could be relied upon. He 
directed them to build a large lanai, or arbor, to be 
entirely covered with ferns, ginger, maile, and ieie — 
the sweet and odorous foliage greens of the islands. 
An altar was to be erected at one end of the lanai and 
appropriately decorated. The order was willingly 
carried out, men, women, and children working with a 
will, so that the whole structure was finished in a 
couple of hours. 

Eleio now directed the hog to be cooked. He also 
ordered cooked red and white fish, red, white, and 
black cocks, and bananas of the lele and maoli varie- 



ties, to be placed on the altar. He ordered all women 
and children to enter their houses and to assist him 
with their prayers ; all pigs, chickens, and dogs to be 
tied in dark huts to keep them quiet, and that the 
most profound silence should be kept. The men at 
work were asked to remember their gods, and to 
invoke their assistance for Eleio. He then started for 
Hana, pulled up a couple of bushes of awa of Kaeleku, 
famous for its medicinal properties, and was back again 
before the hog was cooked. The awa was prepared, 
and when the preparations for the feast were complete 
and set out, he offered everything to his gods and 
begged assistance in what he was about to perform. 

It seems the spirit of the girl had been lingering 
near him all the time, seeming to be attached to him, 
but of course invisible to every one. When Eleio 
had finished his invocation he turned and caught the 
spirit, and, holding his breath and invoking the gods, 
he hurried to the puoa, followed by the parents, who 
now began to understand that he was going to try the 
kapuku (or restoration to life of the dead) on their 
daughter. Arriving at the puoa, he placed the spirit 
against the insteps of the girl and pressed it firmly in, 
meanwhile continuing his invocation. The spirit 
entered its former tenement kindly enough until it 
came to the knees, when it refused to go any further, 
as from there it could perceive that the stomach was 
beginning to decompose, and it did not want to be 
exposed to the pollution of decaying matter. But 
Eleio, by the strength of his prayers, was enabled to 
push the spirit up past the knees till it came to the 


thigh bones, when the refractory spirit again refused to 
proceed. He had to put additional fervor into his 
prayers to overcome the spirit's resistance, and it pro- 
ceeded up to the throat, when there was some further 
check ; by this time the father, mother, and male rela- 
tives were all grouped around anxiously watching the 
operation, and they all added the strength of their 
petitions to those of Eleio, which enabled him to push 
the spirit past the neck, when the girl gave a sort of 
crow. There was now every hope of success, and all 
the company renewed their prayers with redoubled 
vigor. The spirit made a last feeble resistance at the 
elbows and wrists, which was triumphantly overborne 
by the strength of the united prayers. Then it quietly 
submitted, took complete possession of the body, and 
the girl came to life. She was submitted to the usual 
ceremonies of purification by the local priest, after 
which she was led to the prepared lanai, when kahuna, 
maid, parents, and relatives had a joyous reunion. Then 
they feasted on the food prepared for the gods, who 
were only supposed to absorb the spiritual essence of 
things, leaving the grosser material parts to their 
devotees, who, for the time being, are considered their 

After the feast the feather cloak, kapas, and fine 
mats were brought and displayed to Eleio ; and the 
father said to him: "Take the woman thou hast 
restored and have her for wife, and remain here with 
us; you will be our son and will share equally in the 
love we have for her." 

But our hero, with great self-denial and fidelity, 


said: "No, I accept her as a charge, but for wife, she 
is worthy to be one for a higher than I. If you will 
trust her to me, I will take her to my master, for by 
her beauty and charms she is worthy to be the queen 
of our lovely island." 

The father answered: "She is yours to do with as 
you will. It is as if you had created her, for without 
you, where would she be now? We only ask this, 
that you always remember that you have parents and 
relatives here, and a home whenever you choose." 

Eleio then asked that the feather cloak be finished 
for him before he returned to his master. All who 
could work at feathers set about it at once, including 
the fair girl restored to life ; and he now learned that 
she was called Kanikaniaula. 

When it was completed he set out on his return to 
Lahaina accompanied by the girl, and taking the 
feather cloak and the remaining awa he had not used 
in his incantations. They travelled slowly according 
to the strength of Kanikaniaula, who now in the body 
could not equal the speed she had displayed as a 

Arriving at Launiupoko, Eleio turned to her and 
said: "You wait and hide here in the bushes while I 
go on alone. If by sundown I do not return, I shall 
be dead. You know the road by which we came; 
then return to your people. But if all goes well with 
me I shall be back in a little while." 

He then went on alone, and when he reached 
Makila, on the confines of Lahaina, he saw a number 
of people heating an imu, or underground oven. On 


perceiving him they started to bind and roast him 
alive, such being the orders of the King, but he 
ordered them 'away with the request, "Let me die at 
the feet of my master." And thus he passed success- 
fully the imu heated for him. 

When he finally stood before Kakaalaneo, the latter 
said to him: "How is this? Why are you not 
cooked alive, as I ordered? How came you to pass 
my lunas?" 

The kukini answered: "It was the wish of the slave 
to die at the feet of his master, if die he must; but if 
so, it would be an irreparable loss to you, my master, for 
I have that with me that will cause your name to be 
renowned and handed down to posterity." 

"And what is that?" questioned the King. 

Eleio then unrolled his bundle and displayed to the 
astonished gaze of the King and courtiers the glories 
of a feather cloak, before then unheard of on the 
islands. Needless to say, he was immediately par- 
doned and restored to royal favor, and the awa he had 
brought from Hana was reserved for the King's spe- 
cial use in his offerings to the gods that evening. 

When the King heard the whole story of Eleio's 
absence, and that the fair original owner was but a 
short way off, he ordered her to be immediately 
brought before him that he might express his grati- 
tude for the wonderful garment. When she arrived, 
he was so struck with her beauty and modest deport- 
ment that he asked her to become his Queen. Thus, 
some of the highest chiefs of the land traced their 
descent from Kakaalaneo and Kanikaniaula. 


The original feather cloak, known as the "Ahu 
Kakaalaneo" is said to be in the possession of the 
Pauahi Bishop Museum. At one time it was used on 
state occasions as a pa-u, or skirt, by Princess Nahie- 
naena, own sister of the second and third Kamehame- 

The ahuulas of the ancient Hawaiians were of fine 
netting, entirely covered with feathers, woven in. These 
were either of one color and kind or two or three dif- 
ferent colors outlining patterns. The feathers were 
knotted by twos or threes with twisted strands of the 
olona, the process being called uo. They were then 
woven into the foundation netting previously made 
the exact shape and size wanted. The whole process 
of feather cloak making was laborious and intricate, 
and the making of a cloak took a great many years. 
And as to durability, let the cloak of Kalaalaneo, now 
several centuries old, attest. 





TIORDERING upon the land of Kealia, on the 
southwest coast of Lanai, where was apahonua, or 
place of refuge, are the remains of Kaunolu, an ancient 
heiau, or temple. Its ruins lie within the mouth of a 
deep ravine, whose extending banks run out into the sea 
and form a bold, bluff-bound bay. On the top of the 
western bank there is a stone-paved platform, called 
the kuaha. Outside of this, and separated by a narrow 
alley-way, there runs a broad high wall, which quite 
encircles the kuaha. Other walls and structures lead 
down the bank, and the slope is terraced and paved 
down to the tide-worn stones of the shore. 

At the beach there is a break; a great block of the 
bluff has been rent away by some convulsion of 
nature, and stands out like a lone tower, divided from 
the main by a gulf of the sea. Its high walls beetle 
from their tops, upon which neither man nor goat can 
climb. But you can behold on the flat summit of this 
islet bluff, portions of ancient work, of altars and 
walls, and no doubt part of the mainland temple, to 
which this fragment once was joined. But man can 



visit this lone tower's top no more, and his feet can 
never climb its overhanging walls. 

Inland from the temple there are many remains 
of the huts of the people of the past. The stone 
foundations, the inclosures for swine, the round earth 
ovens, and other traces of a throng of people cover 
many acres of beach and hillside. This was a town 
famed as an abode of gods and a refuge for those who 
fled for their lives; but it drew its people mainly 
through the fame of its fishing-ground, which swarmed 
with the varied life of the Hawaiian seas. 

To this famed fishing-ground came the great hero 
of Hawaii to tax the deep, when he had subdued this 
and the other isles. He came with his fleets of war 
canoes; with his faithful koas, or fighting men, with 
his chiefs, and priests, and women, and their trains. 
He had a house here. Upon the craggy bluff" that 
forms the eastern bank of the bay there is a lonely pa, 
or wall, and stones of an ancient fort, overlooking the 
temple, town, and bay. 

Kamehameha came to Kealia for sport rather than 
for worship. Who so loved to throw the maika ball, or 
hurl the spear, or thrust aside the many javelins flung 
at his naked chest, as the chief of Kohala? He rode 
gladly on the crest of the surf waves. He delighted 
to drive his canoe alone out into the storm. He 
fought with the monsters of the deep, as well as with 
men. He captured the great shark that abounds in 
the bay, and he would clutch in the fearful grip of his 
hands the deadly eel or snake of these seas, the terror 
of fishes and men. 


When this warrior king came to Kaunolu, the 
islanders thronged to the shore to pay homage to the 
great chief, and to lay at the feet of their sovereign, as 
was their wont, the products of the isle: the taro, the 
yam, the hala, the cocoanut, ohelo, banana, and sweet 
potato. They piled up a mound of food before the 
door of the King's pakui, along with a clamorous 
multitude of fat poi-fed dogs, and of fathom-long 

Besides this tribute of the men, the workers of the 
land, the women filled the air with the sweet odors of 
their floral offerings. The maidens were twined from 
head to waist with lets or wreaths of the na-u, which is 
Lanai's own lovely jessamine — a rare gardenia, whose 
sweet aroma loads the breeze, and leads you to the 
bush when seeking it afar off. These garlands were 
fastened to the plaited pili thatch of the King's pakui; 
they were placed on the necks of the young warriors, 
who stood around the chief; and around his royal 
brows they twined an odorous crown of maile. 

The brightest of the girlish throng who stood before 
the dread Lord of the Isles was Kaala, or Sweet 
Scented, whose fifteen suns had just burnished her 
sweet brown face with a soft golden gloss; and her 
large, round, tender eyes knew yet no wilting fires. 
Her neck and arms, and all of her young body not 
covered by the leafy pa-u, was tinted with a soft sheen 
like unto a rising moon. Her skin glowed with the 
glory of youth, and mingled its delicate odor of health 
with the blooms of the groves, so that the perfume of 
her presence received fittingly the name of Fragrance. 


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In those rude days the island race was sound and 
clean. The supple round limbs were made bright 
and strong by the constant bath and the temperate 
breeze. They were not cumbered with clothing; they 
wore no long, sweating gowns, but their smooth, shin- 
ing skins reflected back their sun, which gave them 
such a rich and dusky charm. 

Perhaps such a race cannot long wear all our gear 
and live. They are best clothed with sea foam, or 
with the garlands of their groves. How sweetly blend 
the brown and green; and when young, soft, amber- 
tinted cheeks, glowing with the crimson tide beneath, 
are wreathed with the odorous evergreens of the isles, 
you see the poesy of our kind, and the sweet, wild 
grace that dwelt in the Eden Paradise. 

The sweet Kaala stood mindless of harm, as the 
playful breeze rustled the long blades of the la-i {dra- 
cand) leaves, hanging like a bundle of green swords 
from her waist; and as they twirled and fluttered in 
the air, revealed the soft, rounded form, whose charm 
filled the eye and heart of one who stood among the 
braves of the great chief — the heart of the stout young 
warrior Kaaialii. 

This youth had fought in the battle of Maunalei, 
Lanai's last bloody fight. With his long-reaching 
spear, wielded with sinewy arms, he urged the flying 
foe to the top of a fearful cliff", and mocking the cries 
of a huddled crowd of panic-scared men, drove them 
with thrusts and shouts till they leaped like frightened 
sheep into the jaws of the deep, dark chasm, and their 
torn corses strewed the jagged stones below. 


Kaaialii, like many a butcher of his kind, was 
comely to see. With the lion's heart, he had the 
lion's tawny hue. A swart grace beamed beneath his 
curling brows. He had the small, firm hand to 
throttle or caress, and eyes full of fire for hate or love; 
and love's flame now lit the face of the hero of the 
bloody leap, and to his great chief he said, "O King 
of all the isles, let this sweet flower be mine, rather 
than the valley thou gavest me for my domain." 

Said Kamehameha: "You shall plant the Lanai 
jessamine in the valley I gave you in Kohala. But 
there is another who claims our daughter, who is the 
stout bone-breaker, the scarred Mailou. My spear- 
man of Maunalei can have no fear; and you shall 
wrestle with him ; and let the one whose arms can 
clasp the girl after the fight carry her to his house, 
where one kapa shall cover the two." 

The poor maid, the careless gift of savage power, 
held up her clasped hands with a frightened gesture 
at the dread name of the breaker of bones ; for she 
had heard how he had sucked the breath of many a 
dainty bloom like her, then crunched the wilted blos- 
som with sinews of hate, and flung it to the sharks. 

And the Lanai maiden loved the young chief of 
Hawaii. He had indeed pierced her people, but only 
the tender darts of his eyes had wounded her. Turn- 
ing to him, she looked her savage, quick, young love, 
and said, "O Kaaialii, may thy grip be as sure as thy 
thrust. Save me from the bloody virgin-eater, and I 
will catch the squid and beat the kapa for thee all 
my days." 


The time of contest approached. The King sat 
under the shade of a leafy kou, the royal tree of the 
olden time, which has faded away with the chiefs it 
once did shelter. On the smooth shell floor, covered 
with the hala mat, stood the bare-limbed braves, 
stripped to the malo, who with hot eyes of hate shot 
out their rage of lust and blood, and stretched out 
their strangling arms. They stood, beating with 
heavy fists their broad, glossy chests of bronze, and 
grinning face to face, they glowered their savage wish 
to kill. Then, with right foot advanced, and right 
arm uplifted, they pause to shout their gage of battle, 
and tell to each how they would maim and tear, and 
kill, and give each other's flesh for food to some 
beastly maw. 

And now, each drawing near to each, with arms 
uplifted, and outspread palms with sinewy play, like 
nervy claws trying to clutch or grip, they seek a chance 
for a deadly clinch. And swift the scarred child- 
strangler has sprung with his right to the young spear- 
man's throat, who as quickly hooks the lunging arm 
within the crook of his, and with quick, sledge-like 
blow breaks the shoulder arm-bone. 

With fury the baffled bone-breaker grips with the 
uncrippled hand; but now two stout young arms, 
tense with rage, soon twist and break the one unaided 
limb. Then with limp arms the beaten brute turns to 
flee ; but swift hate is upon him, and clutches him by 
the throat; and pressing him down, the hero of Kaala 
holds his knee to the hapless wretch's back, and with 
knee bored into the backward bended spine, he strains 


and jerks till the jointed bones snap and break, and 
the dread throttler of girls and babes lies prone on the 
mat, a broken and bloody corse. 

"Good!" cried the King. "Our son has the strength 
of Kanekoa. Now let our daughter soothe the limbs 
of her lover. Let her stroke his skin, press his joints, 
and knead his back with the loving grip and touch of 
the lomilomi. We will have a great bake, with the 
hula and song; and when the feast is over, then shall 
they be one." 

A line of women squat down. They crone their 
wild refrain, praising the one who wins in strife and 
love. They seize in their right hand the hula gourd, 
clattering with pebbles inside. They whirl it aloft, 
they shake, they swing, they strike their palms, they 
thump the mat; and now with supple joints they twirl 
their loins, and with heave and twist, and with swing 
and song, the savage dance goes on. 

Kaala stood up with the maiden throng, the tender, 
guarded gifts of kings. They twined their wreaths, 
they swayed, and posed their shining arms; and flap- 
ping with their hands their leafy skirts, revealed their 
rounded limbs. This fires the gaze of men, and the 
hero of the day with flaming eyes, springs and clasps 
his love, crying as he bears her away: "Thou shalt 
dance in my hut in Kohala for me alone, forever!" 

At this, a stout yet grizzled man of the isle lifts up 
his voice and wails: "Kaala, my child, is gone. Who 
shall soothe my limbs when I return from spearing 
the ohua? And who shall feed me with taro and 
bread-fruit like the chief of Olowalu, when I have no 


daughter to give away? I must hide from the chief or 
I die." And thus wailed out Opunui, the father of 

But a fierce hate stirred the heart of Opunui. His 
friend was driven over the cliff at Maunalei, and he 
himself had lived only by crawling at the feet of the 
slayer. He hid his hate, and planned to save his girl 
and balk the killer of his people. He said in his 
heart, "I will hide her in the sea, and none but the 
fish gods and I shall know where the ever-sounding 
surf surges over Kaala." 

Now, in the morn, when the girl with ruddy brown 
cheeks, and glowing with the brightening dawn of love, 
stood in the doorway of the lodge of her lord, and her 
face was sparkling with the sheen from the sun, her 
sire in humble guise stood forth and said, "My child, 
your mother at Mahana is dying. Pray you, my lord, 
your love, that you may see her once more before his 
canoe shall bear you to his great land." 

"Alas!" said the tender child, "since when is Kalani 
ill? I shall carry to her this large sweet fish speared 
by my lord; and when I have rubbed her aching 
limbs, she will be well again with the love touch of 
her child. Yes, my lord will let me go. Will you 
not, O Kaaialii; will you not let me go to give my 
mother a last embrace, and I shall be back again 
before the moon has twice spanned the bay?" 

The hero clasped his young love with one stout 
twining arm, and gazing into her eyes, he with a 
caressing hand put back from her brow her shining 
hair, and thus to his heart's life he spoke: "O my 


sweet flower, how shall I live without thee, even for 
this day's march of the sun? For thou art my very 
breath, and I shall pant and die like a stranded fish 
without thee. But no, let me not say so. Kaaialii is 
a chief who has fought men and sharks; and he must 
not speak like a girl. He too loves his mother, who 
looks for him in the valley of Kohala ; and shall he 
deny thy mother, to look her last upon the sweet face 
and the tender limbs that she fed and reared for him? 
Go, my Kaala. But thy chief will sit and watch with 
a hungering heart, till thou come back to his arms 

And the pretty jessamine twined her arms around 
his neck, and laying her cheek upon his breast said, 
with upturned tender glances, "O my chief, who gavest 
me life and sweet joy; thy breath is my breath; thy 
eyes are my sweetest sight; thy breast is my only 
resting-place; and when I go away, I shall all the way 
look back to thee, and go slowly with a backward 
turned heart; but when I return to thee, I shall have 
wings to bear me to my lord." 

"Yes, my own bird," said Kaaialii, "thou must fly, 
but fly swiftly in thy going as well as in thy coming; 
for both ways thou fliest to me. When thou art gone 
I shall spear the tender ohua fish, I shall bake the 
yam and banana, and I will fill the calabash with sweet 
water, to feed thee, my heart, when thou shalt come; 
and thou shalt feed me with thy loving eyes. 

"Here, Opunui! take thy child. Thou gavest life 
to her, but now she gives life to me. Bring her back 
all well, ere the sun has twice risen. If she come not 


soon, I shall die; but I should slay thee before I die; 
therefore, O Opunui, hasten thy going and thy com- 
ing, and bring back my life and love to me." 

And now the stern hero unclasped the weeping girl. 
His eye was calm, but his shut lips showed the work 
within of a strong and tender heart of love. He felt 
the ache of a larger woe than this short parting. 
He pressed the little head between his palms; he 
kissed the sobbing lips again and again; he gave one 
strong clasp, heart to heart, and then quickly strode 

As Kaala tripped along the stony up-hill path, she 
glanced backward on her way, to get glimpses of him 
she loved, and she beheld her chief standing on the 
topmost rock of the great bluff overhanging the sea. 
And still as she went and looked, still there he stood; 
and when on the top of the ridge and about to descend 
into the great valley, she turned to look her last, still 
she saw her loving lord looking up to her. 

The silent sire and the weeping child soon trod the 
round, green vale of Palawai. She heeded not now 
to pluck, as was her wont, the flowers in her path; 
but thought how she should stop a while, as she came 
back, to twine a wreath for her dear lord's neck. And 
thus this sad young love tripped along with innocent 
hope by the moody Opunui's side. 

They passed through the groves of Kalulu and 
Kumoku, and then the man swerved from the path 
leading to Mahana and turned his face again seaward. 
At this the sad and silent child looked up into the 
face of her grim and sullen sire and said: "O father, 


we shall not find mother on this path, but we shall 
lose our way and come to the sea once more." 

"And thy mother is by the sea, by the bay of 
Kaumalapau. There she gathers limpets on the rocks. 
She has dried a large squid for thee. She has pounded 
some taro and filled her calabash with poi, and would 
feed thee once more. She is not sick; but had I said 
she was well, thy lord would not have let thee go; but 
now thou art on the way to sleep with thy mother by 
the sea." 

The poor weary girl now trudged on with a doubt- 
ing heart. She glanced sadly at her dread sire's 
moody eye. Silent and sore she trod the stony path 
leading down to the shore, and when she came to the 
beach with naught in view but the rocks and sea, she 
said with a bursting heart, "O my father, is the shark 
to be my mother, and I to never see my dear chief 
any more?" 

"Hear the truth," cried Opunui. "Thy home for 
a time is indeed in the sea, and the shark shall be thy 
mate, but he shall not harm thee. Thou goest down 
where the sea god lives, and he shall tell thee that the 
accursed chief of the bloody leap shall not carry away 
any daughter of Lanai. When Kaaialii has sailed for 
Kohala then shall the chief of Olowalu come and bring 
thee to earth again." 

As the .fierce sire spoke, he seized the hand of Kaala, 
and unheeding her sobs and cries, led her along the 
rugged shore to a point eastward of the bay, where 
the beating sea makes the rocky shore tremble beneath 
the feet. Here was a boiling gulf, a fret and foam of 


the sea, a roar of waters, and a mighty jet of brine and 
spray from a spouting cave whose mouth lay deep 
beneath the battling tide. 

See yon advancing billow! The south wind sends it 
surging along. It rears its combing, whitening crest, 
and with mighty, swift-rushing volume of angry green 
sea, it strikes the mouth of the cave ; it drives and 
packs the pent-up air within, and now the tightened 
wind rebounds, and driving back the ramming sea, 
bursts forth with a roar as the huge spout of sea leaps 
upward to the sky, and then comes curving down in 
gentle silver spray. 

The fearful child now clasped the knees of her sav- 
age sire. "Not there, O father," she sobbed and 
wailed. "The sea snake (the puhi) has his home in 
the cave, and he will bite and tear me, and ere I die, 
the crawling crabs will creep over me and pick out my 
weeping eyes. Alas, O father, better give me to the 
shark, and then my cry and moan will not hurt thine 

Opunui clasped the slender girl with one sinewy 
arm, and with a bound he leaped into the frothed and 
fretted pool below. Downward with a dolphin's ease 
he moved, and with his free arm beating back the 
brine, moved along the ocean bed into the sea cave's 
jagged jaws; and then stemming with stiffened sinew 
the wind-driven tide, he swam onward till he struck a 
sunless beach and then stood inside the cave, whose 
mouth is beneath the sea. 

Here was a broad, dry space with a lofty, salt-icicled 
roof. The green, translucent sea, as it rolled back and 


forth at their feet, gave to their brown faces a ghastly 
white glare. The scavenger crabs scrambled away 
over the dank and dripping stones, and the loathsome 
biting eel, slowly reached out its well-toothed, wide- 
gaping jaw to tear the tender feet that roused it from 
its horrid lair, where the dread sea god dwelt. 

The poor hapless girl sank down upon this gloomy 
shore and cried, clinging to the kanaka's knee: "O 
father, beat out my brains with this jagged stone, and 
do not let the eel twine around my neck, and trail 
with a loathsome, slimy, creeping crawl over my body 
before I die. Oh! the crabs will pick and tear me 
before my breath is gone." 

"Listen," said Opunui. "Thou shalt go back with 
me to the warm sunny air. Thou shalt tread again the 
sweet-smelling flowery vale of Palawai, and twine 
thy neck with wreaths of scented jessamine, if thou 
wilt go with me to the house of the chief of Olowalu 
and there let thy bloody lord behold thee wanton with 
thy love in another chief's arms." 

"Never," shouted the lover of Kaaialii, "never will 
I meet any clasp of love but that of my own chief. 
If I cannot lay my head again upon his breast, I will 
lay it in death upon these cold stones. If his arm 
shall never again draw me to his heart, then let the eel 
twine my neck and let him tear away my cheeks rather 
than that another beside my dear lord shall press my 

"Then let the eel be thy mate," cried Opunui, as 
he roughly unclasped the tender arms twined around 
his knees; "until the chief of Olowalu comes to seize 


thee, and carry thee to his house in the hills of Maui. 
Seek not to leave the cave. Thou knowest that with 
thy weak arms, thou wilt tear thyself against the 
jagged rocks in trying to swim through the swift flow- 
ing channel. Stay till I send for thee, and live." 
Then dashing out into the foaming gulf with mighty 
buffeting arms he soon reached the upper air. 

And Kaaialii stood upon the bluff, looking up to 
the hillside path by which his love had gone, long 
after her form was lost to view in the interior vales. 
And after slight sleep upon his mat, and walking by 
the shore that night, he came at dawn and climbed the 
bluff again to watch his love come down the hill. 
And as he gazed he saw a leafy skirt flutter in the 
wind, and his heart fluttered to clasp his little' girl; 
but as a curly brow drew near, his soul sank to see it 
was not his love, but her friend Ua (rain) with some 
sad news upon her face. 

With hot haste and eager asking eyes does the 
love-lorn chief meet the maiden messenger, and cries, 
"Why does Kaala delay in the valley? Has she 
twined wreaths for another's neck for me to break? 
Has a wild hog torn her? Or has the anaana prayer of 
death struck her heart, and does she lie cold on the 
sod of Mahana? Speak quickly, for thy face kills 
me, O Ua!" 

"Not thus, my lord," said the weeping girl, as the 
soft shower fell from Ua's sweet eyes. "Thy love is 
not in the valley; and she has not reached the hut of 
her mother Kalani. But kanakas saw from the hills 
of Kalulu her father lead her through the forest of 


Kumoku; since then our Kaala has not been seen, 
and I fear has met some fate that is to thwart thy 

"Kaala lost? The blood of my heart is gone!" 
He hears no more! The fierce chief, hot with baffled 
passion, strikes madly at the air, and dashes away, 
onward up the stony hill; and upward with his stout 
young savage thews, he bounds along without halt or 
slack of speed till he reaches the valley's rim, then 
rushes down its slopes. 

He courses over its bright green plains. He sees 
in the dusty path some prints that must be those of 
the dear feet he follows now. His heart feels a fresh 
bound; he feels neither strain of limb nor scantness 
of breath, and, searching as he runs, he descries before 
him in the plain the deceitful sire alone. 

"Opunui," he cries, "give me Kaala, or thy life!" 
The stout, gray kanaka looks to see the face of flame 
and the outstretched arms, and stops not to try the 
strength of his own limbs, or to stay for any parley, 
but flies across the valley, along the very path by which 
the fierce lover came; and with fear to spur him on, 
he keeps well before his well blown foe. 

But Kaaialii is now a god; he runs with new strung 
limbs, and presses hard this fresh-footed runner of 
many a race. They are within two spears' length of 
each other's grip upon the rim of the vale; and hot 
with haste the one, and with fear the other, they dash 
along the rugged path of Kealia, and rush downward 
to the sea. They bound o'er the fearful path of 
clinkers. Their torn feet heed not the pointed stones. 


The elder seeks the shelter of the taboo; and now, 
both roused by the outcries of a crowd that swarm on 
the bluffs around, they put forth their remaining 
strength and strive who shall gain first the entrance to 
the sacred wall of refuge. 

For this the hunted sire strains his fast failing nerve; 
and the youth with a shout quickens his still tense 
limbs. He is within a spear's length; he stretches 
out his arms. Ha, old man! he has thy throat within 
his grip. But no, the greased neck slips the grasp; 
the wretch leaps for his dear life, he gains the sacred 
wall, he bounds inside, and the furious foe is stopped 
by the staves of priests. 

The baffled chief lies prone in the dust, and curses 
the gods and the sacred taboo. After a time he is led 
away to his hut by friends; and then the soothing 
hands of Ua rub and knead the soreness out of his 
limbs. And when she has set the calabash of poi 
before him along with the relishing dry squid, and he 
has filled himself and is strong again, he will not heed 
any entreaty of chief or friends; not even the caressing 
lures of Ua, who loves him; but he says, "I will go 
and seek Kaala; and if I find her not, I die." 

Again the love-lorn chief seeks the inland. He 
shouts the name of his lost love in the groves of 
Kumoku, and throughout the forest of Mahana. 
Then he roams through the cloud-canopied valley of 
Palawai; he searches among the wooded canyons of 
Kalulu, and he wakes the echoes with the name 
of Kaala in the gorge of the great ravine of Maunalei. 
He follows this high walled barranca over its richly 


flowered and shaded floor; and also along by trie 
winding stream, until he reaches its source, an abrupt 
wall of stone, one hundred feet high, and forming the 
head of the ravine. From the face of this steep, tow- 
ering rock, there exudes a sweet, clear rain, a thousand 
trickling rills of rock-filtered water leaping from points 
of fern and moss, and filling up an ice cold pool below, 
at which our weary chief gladly slaked his thirst. The 
hero now clambers the steep walls of the gorge, impass- 
able to the steps of men in these days; but he climbs 
with toes thrust in crannies, or resting on short juts 
and points of rock; and he pulls himself upward by 
grasping at out-cropping bushes and strong tufts of 
fern. And thus with stout sinew and bold nerve the 
fearless spearman reaches the upper land from whence 
he had, in his day of devouring rage, hurled and 
driven headlong the panic-stricken foe. 

And now he runs on over the lands of Paomai, 
through the wooded dells of the gorge of Kaiholena, 
and onward across Kaunolu and Kalulu, until he 
reaches the head spring of sacred Kealia called Waia- 
kekua; and here he gathered bananas and ohelo ber- 
ries; and as he stayed his hunger with the pleasant 
wild fruit, he beheld a white-haired priest of Kaunolu, 
bearing a calabash of water. 

The aged priest feared the stalwart chief, because he 
was not upon his own sacred ground, under the safe 
wing of the taboo; and therefore he bowed low and 
clasped the stout knees, and offered the water to slake 
the thirst of the sorrowing chief. But Kaaialii cried 
out: "I thirst not for water, but for the sight of my 


love. Tell me where she is hid, and I will bring thee 
hogs and men for the gods." And to this the glad 
priest replied: 

"Son of the stout spear! I know thou seekest the 
sweet Flower of Palawai; and no man but her sire has 
seen her resting-place; but I know that thou seekest 
in vain in the groves, and in the ravines, and in this 
mountain. Opunui is a great diver and has his dens 
in the sea. He leaves the shore when no one fol- 
lows, and he sleeps with the fish gods, and thou wilt 
find thy love in some cave of the rock-bound southern 

The chief quickly turns his face again seaward. He 
descends the deep shaded pathway of the ravine of 
Kaunolu. He winds his way through shaded thickets 
of ohia, sandalwood, the yellow mamani, the shrub 
violet, and the fragrant na-u. He halted not as he 
reached the plain of Palawai, though the ever over- 
hanging canopy of cloud that shades this valley of the 
mountain cooled his weary feet. These upper lands 
were still, and no voice was heard by the pili grass 
huts, and the maika balls and the wickets of the bowl- 
ing alley of Palawai stood untouched, because all the 
people were with the great chief by the shore of 
Kaunolu; and Kaaialii thought that he trod the flow- 
ery pathway of the still valley alone. 

But there was one who, in soothing his strained 
limbs after he fell by the gateway of the temple, had 
planted strong love in her own heart; and she, Ua, 
with her lithe young limbs, had followed this sorrow- 
ing lord through all his weary tramp, even through 


the gorges, and over the ramparts of the hills, and she 
was near the sad, wayworn chief when he reached the 
southern shore. 

The weary hero only stayed his steps when he 
reached the brow of the great bluff of Palikaholo. 
The sea broke many hundred feet below where he 
stood. The gulls and screaming boatswain birds 
sailed in mid- air between his perch and the green 
waves. He looked up the coast to his right, and saw 
the lofty, wondrous sea columns of Honopu. He 
looked to the left, and beheld the crags of Kalulu, but 
nowhere could he see any sign which should tell him 
where his love was hid away. 

His strong, wild nature was touched by the distant 
sob and moan of the surf. It sang a song for his sad, 
savage soul. It roused up before his eyes other eyes, 
and lips, and cheeks, and clasps of tender arms. His 
own sinewy ones he now stretched out wildly in the 
mocking air. He groaned, and sobbed, and beat his 
breast as he cried out, "Kaala! O Kaala! Where art 
thou? Dost thou sleep with the fish gods, or must I 
go to join thee in the great shark's maw?" 

As the sad hero thought of this dread devourer of 
many a tender child of the isles, he hid his face with 
his hands, — looking with self-torture upon the image 
of his soft young love, crunched, bloody and shriek- 
ing, in the jaws of the horrid god of the Hawaiian seas; 
and as he thought and waked up in his heart the 
memories of his love, he felt that he must seek her 
even in her gory grave in the sea. 

Then he looks forth again, and as he gazes down 


by the shore his eyes rest upon the spray of the blow- 
ing cave near Kaumalapau. It leaps high with the 
swell which the south wind sends. The white mist 
gleams in the sun. Shifting forms and shades are 
seen in the varied play of the up-leaping cloud. And 
as with fevered soul he glances, he sees a form spring 
up in the ever bounding spray. 

He sees with his burning eyes the lines of the sweet 
form that twines with tender touch around his soul. 
He sees the waving hair, that mingles on his neck 
with his own swart curls. He sees, — he thinks he 
sees, — in the leap and play of sun-tinted spray, his love, 
his lost Kaala; and with hot foot he rushes downward 
to the shore. 

He stands upon the point of rock whence Opunui 
sprang. He feels the throb beneath his feet of the 
beating, bounding tide. He sees the fret and foam 
of the surging gulf below the leaping spray, and is 
wetted by the shore-driven mist. He sees all of this 
wild, working water, but he does not see Kaala. 

And yet he peers into .this mad surf for her he 
seeks. The form that he has seen still leads him on. 
He will brave the sea god's wrath; and he fain would 
cool his brow of flame in the briny bath. He thinks 
he hears a voice sounding down within his soul; and 
cries, "Where art thou, O Kaala? I come, I come!" 
And as he cries, he springs into the white, foaming 
surge of this ever fretted sea. 

And one was near as the hero sprang; even Ua, with 
the clustering curls. She loved the chief; she did 
hope that when his steps were stayed by the sea, and 


he had mingled his moan with the wild waters' wail, 
that he would turn once more to the inland groves, 
where she would twine him wreaths, and soothe his 
limbs, and rest his head upon her knees; but he has 
leaped for death, he comes up no more. And Ua 
wailed for Kaaialii; and as the chief rose no more from 
out the lashed and lathered sea, she cried out, "Auwe 
ka make!" (Alas, he is dead!) And thus wailing and 
crying out, and tearing her hair, she ran back over the 
bluffs, and down the shore to the tabooed ground of 
Kealia, and wailing ever, flung herself at the feet of 

The King was grieved to hear from Ua of the loss 
of his young chief. But the priest Papalua standing 
near, said: "O Chief of Heaven, and of all the isles; 
there where Kaaialii has leaped is the sea den of 
Opunui, and as thy brave spearman can follow the 
turtle to his deep sea nest, he will see the mouth of 
the cave, and in it, I think, he will find his lost love, 
Kaala, the flower of Palawai." 

At this Ua roused up. She called to her brother 
Keawe, and laying hold on him, pulled him toward 
the shore, crying out, "To thy canoe, quick! I will 
help thee to paddle to Kaumalapau." For thus she 
could reach the cave sooner than by the way of the 
bluffs. And the great chief also following, sprang 
into his swiftest canoe, and helping as was his wont, 
plunged his blade deep into the swelling tide, and 
bounded along by the frowning shore of Kumoku. 

When Kaaialii plunged beneath the surging waters, 
he became at once the searching diver of the Hawaiian 


seas; and as his keen eye peered throughout the 
depths, he saw the portals of the ocean cave into 
which poured the charging main. He then, stemming 
with easy play of his well-knit limbs the suck and rush 
of the sea, shot through the current of the gorge; and 
soon stood up upon the sunless strand. 

At first he saw not, but his ears took in at once a 
sad and piteous moan, — a sweet, sad moan for his 
hungry ear, of the voice of her he sought. And 
there upon the cold, dank, dismal floor he could dimly 
see his bleeding, dying love. Quickly clasping and 
soothing her, he lifted her up to bear her to the upper 
air; but the moans of his poor weak Kaala told him 
she would be strangled in passing through the sea. 

And as he sat down, and held her in his arms, she 
feebly spoke: "O my chief, I can die now! I feared 
that the fish gods would take me, and I should never 
see thee more. The eel bit me, and the crabs crawled 
over me, and when I dared the sea to go and seek 
thee, my weak arms could not fight the tide; I was 
torn against the jaws of the cave, and this and the fear 
of the gods have so hurt me, that I must die." 

"Not so, my love," said the sad and tearful chief. 
"I am with thee now. I give thee the warmth of my 
heart. Feel my life in thine. Live, O my Kaala, for 
me. Come, rest and be calm, and when thou canst 
hold thy breath I will take thee to the sweet air again, 
and to thy valley, where thou shalt twine wreaths for 
me." And thus with fond words and caresses he 
sought to soothe his love. 

But the poor girl still bled as she moaned; and with 


fainter voice she said, "No, my chief, I shall never 
twine a wreath, but only my arms once more around 
thy neck." And feebly clasping him, she said in sad, 
sobbing, fainting tones, "Aloha, my sweet lord! Lay 
me among the flowers by Waiakeakua, and do not 
slay my father." 

Then, breathing moans and murmurs of love, she 
lay for a time weak and fainting upon her lover's 
breast, with her arms drooping by her side. But all 
at once she clasps his neck, and with cheek to cheek, 
she clings, she moans, she gasps her last throbs of love 
and passes away; and her poor torn corse lies limp 
within the arms of the love-lorn chief. 

As he cries out in his woe there are other voices in 
the cave. First he hears the voice of Ua speaking to 
him in soothing tones as she stoops to the body of her 
friend; and then in a little while he hears the voice of 
his great leader calling to him and bidding him stay his 
grief. "O King of all the Seas," said Kaaialii, stand- 
ing up and leaving Kaala to the arms of Ua, " I have 
lost the flower thou gavest me; it is broken and dead, 
and I have no more joy in life." 

"What!" said Kamehameha, "art thou a chief, and 
wouldst cast away life for a girl? Here is Ua, who 
loves thee; she is young and tender like Kaala. Thou 
shalt have her, and more, if thou dost want. Thou shalt 
have, besides the land I gave thee in Kohala, all 
that thou shalt ask of Lanai. Its great valley of 
Palawai shall be thine; and thou shalt watch my fishing 
grounds of Kaunolu, and be the Lord of Lanai." 

"Hear, O King," said Kaaialii. "I gave to Kaala 


more of my life in loving her, and of my strength in 
seeking for her than ever I gave for thee in battle. I 
gave to her more of love than I ever gave to my 
mother, and more of my thought than I ever gave to 
mv own life. She was my very breath, and my life, 
and how shall I live without her? Her face, since first 
I saw her, has been ever before me ; and her warm 
breasts were my joy and repose ; and now that they are 
cold to me, I must go where her voice and love have 
gone. If I shut my eyes now I see her best; therefore 
let me shut my eyes forevermore." And as he spoke, 
he stooped to clasp his love, said a tender word of adieu 
to Ua, and then with a swift, strong blow, crushed in 
brow and brain with a stone. 

The dead chief lay by the side of his love, and Ua 
wailed over both. Then the King ordered that the 
two lovers should lie side by side on a ledge of the 
cave; and that they should be wrapped in tapas which 
should be brought down through the sea in tight bam- 
boos. Then there was great wailing for the chief and 
the maid who lay in the cave; and thus wailed Ua: 

"Where art thou, O brave chief? 
Where art thou, O fond girl? 
Will ye sleep by the sound of the sea? 
And will ye dream of the gods of the deep? 
O sire, where now is thy child? 
O mother, where now is thy son? 
The lands of Kohala shall mourn, 
And valleys of Lanai shall lament. 
The spear of the chief shall rot in the cave, 
And the tapa of the maid is left undone. 
The wreaths for his neck, they shall fade, 


They shall fade away on the hills. 
O Kaaialii, who shall spear the uku ? 
O Kaala, who shall gather the na-u ? 
Have ye gone to the shores of Kahiki, 
To the land of our father, Wakea? 
Will ye feed on the moss of the cave, 
And the limpets of the surf-beaten shore? 
O chief, O friend, I would feed ye, 
O chief, O friend, I would rest ye. 
Ye loved, like the sun and the flower, 
Ye lived like the fish and the wave, 
And now like the seeds in a shell, 
• Ye sleep in your cave by the sea. 
Alas ! O chief, alas ! O my friend, 
Will ye sleep in the cave evermore?" 

And thus Ua wailed, and then was borne away by 
her brother to the sorrowful shore of Kaunolu, where 
there was loud wailing for the chief and the maid; and 
many were the chants of lamentation for the two lovers, 
who sleep side by side in the Spouting Cave of Kaala. 




r\NE of the interesting localities of tradition, famed 
^^^ in Hawaiian song and story of ancient days, is 
situate at the southwestern point of the island of 
Lanai, and known as the Kupapau o Puupehe, or 
Tomb of Puupehe. At the point indicated, on the 
leeward coast of the island, may be seen a huge block 
of red lava about eighty feet high and some sixty feet 
in diameter, standing out in the sea, and detached 
from the mainland some fifty fathoms, around which 
centres the following legend. 

Observed from the overhanging bluff that overlooks 
Puupehe, upon the summit of this block or elevated 
islet, would be noticed a small inclosure formed by a 
low stone wall. This is said to be the last resting- 
place of a Hawaiian girl whose body was buried there 
by her lover Makakehau, a warrior of Lanai. 

Puupehe was the daughter of Uaua, a petty chief, 
one of the dependents of the king of Maui, and she 
was won by young Makakehau as the joint prize of 
love and war. These two are described in the Kani- 
kaUy or Lamentation, of Puupehe, as mutually captive, 



the one to the other. The maiden was a sweet flower 
of Hawaiian beauty. Her glossy brown, spotless body 
"shone like the clear sun rising out of Haleakala." 
Her flowing, curly hair, bound by a wreath of lehua 
blossoms, streamed forth as she ran "like the surf 
crests scudding before the wind." And the starry 
eyes of the beautiful daughter of Uaua blinded the 
young warrior, so that he was called Makakehau, or 
Misty Eyes. 

The Hawaiian brave feared that the comeliness of 
his dear captive would cause her to be coveted by the 
chiefs of the land. His soul yearned to keep her all 
to himself. He said: "Let us go to the clear waters 
of Kalulu. There we will fish together for the kala 
and the aku, and there I will spear the turtle. I will 
hide you, my beloved, forever in the cave of Malauea. 
Or, we will dwell together in the great ravine of Pala- 
wai, where we will eat the young of the uwau bird, and 
we will bake them in ki leaf with the sweet pala fern 
root. The ohelo berries of the mountains will refresh 
my love. We will drink of the cool waters of Mauna- 
lei. I will thatch a hut in the thicket of Kaohai for 
our resting-place, and we shall love on till the stars 

The meles tell of their love in the Pulou ravine, 
where they caught the bright iiwi birds, and the scarlet 
apapani. Ah, what sweet joys in the banana groves 
of Waiakeakua, where the lovers saw naught so beau- 
tiful as themselves! But the "misty eyes" were soon 
to be made dim by weeping, and dimmer, till the 
drowning brine should close them forevermore. 


Makakehau left his love one day in the cave of 
Malauea while he went to the mountain spring to fill 
the water-gourds with sweet water. This cavern yawns 
at the base of the overhanging bluff that overtops the 
rock of Puupehe. The sea surges far within, but there 
is an inner space which the expert swimmer can reach, 
and where Puupehe had often rested and baked the 
honu.) or sea turtle, for her absent lover. 

This was the season for the kona, the terrific storm 
that comes up from the equator and hurls the ocean 
in increased volume upon the southern shores of the 
Hawaiian Islands. Makakehau beheld from the rock 
springs of Pulou the vanguard of a great kona, — scuds 
of rain and thick mist, rushing with a howling wind, 
across the valley of Palawai. He knew the storm 
would fill the cave with the sea and kill his love. He 
flung aside his calabashes of water and ran down the 
steep, then across the great valley and beyond its 
rim he rushed, through the buffetings of the storm, 
with an agonized heart, down the hill slope to the 

The sea was up indeed. The yeasty foam of mad 
surging waves whitened the shore. The thundering 
buffet of the charging billows chorused with the howl 
of the tempest. Ah! where should Misty Eyes find 
his love in this blinding storm? A rushing mountain 
of sea filled the mouth of Malauea, and the pent-up 
air hurled back the invading torrent with bubbling 
roar, blowing forth great streams of spray. This was 
a war of matter, a battle of the elements to thrill with 
pleasure the hearts of strong men. But with one's 


love in the seething gulf of the whirlpool, what would 
be to him the sublime cataract? What, to see amid 
the boiling foam the upturned face, and the dear, ten- 
der body of one's own and only poor dear love, all 
mangled? You might agonize on the brink; but Maka- 
kehau sprang into the dreadful pool and snatched his 
murdered bride from the jaws of an ocean grave. 

The next day, fishermen heard the lamentation of 
Makakehau, and the women of the valley came down 
and wailed over Puupehe. They wrapped her in 
bright new kapa. They placed upon her garlands of 
the fragrant na-u (gardenia). They prepared her for 
burial, and were about to place her in the burial ground 
of Manele, but Makakehau prayed that he might be 
left alone one night more with his lost love. And he 
was left as he desired. 

The next day no corpse nor weeping lover were to be 
found, till after some search Makakehau was seen at 
work piling up stones on the top of the lone sea tower. 
The wondering people of Lanai looked on from the 
neighboring bluff, and some sailed around the base of 
the columnar rock in their canoes, still wondering, 
because they could see no way for him to ascend, for 
every face of the rock is perpendicular or overhanging. 
The old belief was, that some akua, kanekoa, or keawe- 
mauhili (deities), came at the cry of Makakehau and 
helped him with the dead girl to the top. 

When Makakehau had finished his labors of placing 
his lost love in her grave and placed the last stone 
upon it, he stretched out his arms and wailed for 
Puupehe, thus: 


"Where are you O Puupehe? 
Are you in the cave of Malauea? 
Shall I bring you sweet water, 
The water of the mountain? 
Shall I bring the uwau, 
The pala, and the ohelo? 
Are you baking the honu 

And the red sweet hala? , 

Shall I pound the kalo of Maui? 
Shall we dip in the gourd together? 
The bird and the fish are bitter, 
And the mountain water is sour. 
I shall drink it no more ; 
I shall drink with Aipuhi, 
The great shark of Manele." 

Ceasing his sad wail, Makakehau leaped from the 
rock into the boiling surge at its base, where his body- 
was crushed in the breakers. The people who beheld 
the sad scene secured the mangled corpse and buried 
it with respect in the kupapau of Manele. 





/^\N the leeward side of the island of Molokai, a 
^^^ little to the east of Kaluaaha lies the beautiful 
valley of Mapulehu, at the mouth of which is located 
the heiau, or temple, of Iliiliopae, which was erected 
by direction of Ku-pa, the Moi, to look directly out 
upon the harbor of Ai-Kanaka, now known as Pukoo. 
At the time of its construction, centuries ago, Kupa 
was the Moi, or sovereign, of the district embracing 
the Ahupuaas, or land divisions, of Mapulehu and 
Kaluaaha, and he had his residence in this heiau which 
was built by him and famed as the largest throughout 
the whole Hawaiian group. 

Kupa had a priest named Kamalo, who resided at 
Kaluaaha. This priest had two boys, embodiments of 
mischief, who one day while the King was absent on a 
fishing expedition, took the opportunity to visit his 
house at the heiau. Finding there the pahu kaeke 1 

1 A species of drum made out of a hollowed section of the trunk of a cocoanut tree 
and covered over one end with sharkskin. It was generally used in pairs, one larger 
than the other, somewhat after the idea of the bass and tenor drums of civilized nations. 
One of these drums was placed on either side of the performer, and the drumming was 
performed with both hands by tapping with the fingers. By peculiar variations of the 



belonging to the temple, they commenced drumming 
on it. 

Some evil-minded persons heard Kamalo's boys 
drumming on the Kaeke and immediately went and 
told Kupa that the priest's children were reviling him 
in the grossest manner on his own drum. This so 
enraged the King that he ordered his servants to put 
them to death. Forthwith they were seized and mur- 
dered; whereupon Kamalo, their father, set about to 
secure revenge on the King. 

Taking with him a black pig as a present, he started 
forth to enlist the sympathy and services of the cele- 
brated seer, or wizard, Lanikaula, living some twelve 
miles distant at the eastern end of Molokai. On 
the way thither, at the village of Honouli, Kamalo 
met a man the lower half of whose body had been bit- 
ten off by a shark, and who promised to avenge him 
provided he would slay some man and bring him the 
lower half of his body to replace his own. But Kam- 
alo, putting no credence in such an offer, pressed on 
to the sacred grove of Lanikaula. Upon arrival there 
Lanikaula listened to his grievances but could do 
nothing for him. He directed him, however, to an- 
other prophet, named Kaneakama, at the west end of 
the island, forty miles distant. Poor Kamalo picked 
up his pig and travelled back again, past his own home, 
down the coast to Palaau. Meeting with Kaneakama 
the prophet directed him ..o the heiau of Puukahi, at 
the foot of the pali, or precipice, of Kalaupapa, on the 

drumming, known only to the initiated, the performer could drum out whatever he 
wished to express in such a way, it is alleged, as to be intelligible to initiated listeners 
without uttering a single syllable with the voice. 


windward side of the island, where he would find the 
priest Kahiwakaapuu, who was a kahu, or steward, of 
Kauhuhu, the shark god. Once more the poor man 
shouldered his pig, wended his way up the long ascent 
of the hills of Kalae to the pali of Kalaupapa, descend- 
ing which he presented himself before Kahiwakaapuu, 
and pleaded his cause. He was again directed to go 
still farther along the windward side of the island till 
he should come to the Anapuhi (eel's cave), a singular 
cavern at sea level in the bold cliffs between the val- 
leys of Waikolu and Pelekunu, where Kauhuhu, the 
shark god, dwelt, and to him he must apply. Upon 
this away went Kamalo and his pig. Arriving at the 
cave, he found there Waka and Moo, two kahus of 
the shark god. "Keep ofF! Keep off!" they shouted. 
"This place is kapu. No man can enter here, on pen- 
alty of death." 

"Death or life," answered he, "it is all the same 
to me if I can only gain my revenge for my poor boys 
who have been killed." He then related his story, 
and his wanderings, adding that he had come to make 
his appeal to Kauhuhu and cared not for his own life. 

"Well," said they to him, "Kauhuhu is away now 
fishing, but if he finds you here when he returns, our 
lives as well as yours will pay the forfeit. However, 
we will see what we can do to help you. We must 
hide you hereabouts, somewhere, and when he returns 
trust to circumstances to accomplish your purpose." 

But they could find no place to hide him where he 
would be secure from the search of the god, except the 
rubbish pile where the offal and scrapings of taro were 


thrown. They therefore thrust him and his pig into 
the rubbish heap and covered them over with the taro 
peelings, enjoining him to keep perfectly still, and 
watch till he should see eight heavy breakers roll in 
successively from the sea. He then would know that 
Kauhuhu was returning from his fishing expedition. 

Accordingly, after waiting a while, the eight heavy 
rollers appeared, breaking successively against the 
rocks; and sure enough, as the eighth dissolved into 
foam, the great shark god came ashore. Immediately 
assuming human form, he began snuffing about the 
place, and addressing Waka and Moo, his kahus, said 
to them, "There is a man here." They strenuously 
denied the charge and protested against the possibility 
of their allowing such a desecration of the premises. 
But he was not satisfied. He insisted that there was 
a man somewhere about, saying, "I smell him, and if 
I find him you are dead men; if not, you escape." He 
examined the premises over and over again, never 
suspecting the rubbish heap, and was about giving up 
the search when, unfortunately, Kamalo's pig sent 
forth a squeal which revealed the poor fellow's hiding- 

Now came the dread moment. The enraged Kau- 
huhu seized Kamalo with both hands and, lifting him 
up with the intention of swallowing him, according to 
his shark instinct, had already inserted the victim's head 
and shoulders into his mouth before he could speak, 

"O Kauhuhu, before you eat me, hear my petition; 
then do as you like." 

"Well for you that you spoke as you did," 


answered Kauhuhu, setting him down again on the 
ground. "Now, what have you to say? Be quick 
about it." 

Kamalo then rehearsed his grievances and his travels 
in search for revenge, and presented his pig to the god. 

Compassion arose in the breast of Kauhuhu, and 
he said, "Had you come for any other purpose I 
would have eaten you, but as your cause is a sacred one 
I espouse it, and will revenge it on Kupa the King. 
You must, however, do all that I tell you. Return to 
the heiau of Puukahi, at the foot of the pali, and take 
the priest Kahiwakaapuu on your back, and carry him 
up the pali over to the other side of the island, all the 
way to your home at Kaluaaha. Erect a sacred fence 
all around your dwelling-place, and surround it with 
the sacred flags of white kapa. Collect black hogs by 
the lau (four hundred), red fish by the lau, white fowls 
by the lau, and bide my coming. Wait and watch till 
you see a small cloud the size of a man's hand arise, 
white as snow, over the island of Lanai. That cloud 
will enlarge as it makes its way across the channel 
against the wind until it rests on the mountain peaks 
of Molokai back of Mapulehu Valley. Then a rain- 
bow will span the valley from side to side, whereby* 
you will know that I am there, and that your time of 
revenge has come. Go now, and remember that you 
are the only man who ever ventured into the sacred 
precincts of the great Kauhuhu and returned alive." 

Kamalo returned with a joyful heart and performed 
all that had been commanded him. He built the 
sacred fence around his dwelling; surrounded the 


inclosure with sacred flags of white kapa; gathered 
together black hogs, red fish, and white fowls, each 
by the lau, as directed, with other articles sacred 
to the gods, such as cocoanuts and white kapas, and 
then sat himself down to watch for the promised signs 
of his revenge. Day after day passed until they 
multiplied into weeks, and the weeks began to run into 

Finally, one day, the promised sign appeared. The 
snow white speck of cloud, no bigger than a man's 
hand, arose over the mountains of Lanai and made its 
way across the stormy channel in the face of the 
opposing gale, increasing as it came, until it settled in 
a majestic mass on the mountains at the head of 
Mapulehu Valley. Then appeared a splendid rainbow, 
proudly over-arching the valley, its ends resting on 
the high lands on either side. The wind began to 
blow; the rain began to pour, and shortly a furious 
storm came down the doomed valley, filling its bed 
from side to side with a mad rushing torrent, which, 
sweeping everything before it, spread out upon the belt 
of lowlands at the mouth of the valley, overwhelming 
Kupa and all his people in one common ruin, and wash- 
ing them all into the sea, where they were devoured by 
the sharks. All were destroyed except Kamalo and 
his family, who were safe within their sacred inclosure, 
which the flood dared not touch, though it spread 
terror and ruin on every side of them. Wherefore 
the harbor of Pukoo, where this terrible event occur- 
red, was long known as Ai Kanaka (man eater), and it 
has passed into a proverb among the inhabitants of 


that region that "when the rainbow spans Mapulehu 
Valley, then look, out for the W aiakoloa" — a furious 
storm of rain and wind which sometimes comes sud- 
denly down that valley. 





A FEW miles east of Laie, on the windward side 
of the island of Oahu, are situated the valley and 
falls of Kaliuwaa, noted as one of the most beautiful 
and romantic spots of the island, and famed in tradi- 
tion as possessing more than local interest. 

The valley runs back some two miles, terminating 
abruptly at the foot of the precipitous chain of moun- 
tains which runs nearly the whole length of the wind- 
ward side of Oahu, except for a narrow gorge which 
affords a channel for a fine brook that descends with con- 
siderable regularity to a level with the sea. Leaving 
his horse at the termination of the valley and entering 
this narrow pass of not over fifty or sixty feet in width, 
the traveller winds his way along, crossing and recross- 
ing the stream several times, till he seems to be enter- 
ing into the very mountain. The walls on each side 
are of solid rock, from two hundred to three hundred, 
and in some places four hundred feet high, directly 
overhead, leaving but a narrow strip of sky visible. 

Following up the stream for about a quarter of a 



mile, one's attention is directed by the guide to a curi- 
osity called by the natives a waa (canoe). Turning 
to the right, one follows up a dry channel of what 
once must have been a considerable stream, to the 
distance of fifty yards from the present stream. Here 
one is stopped by a wall of solid rock rising perpen- 
dicularly before one to the height of some two hundred 
feet, and down which the whole stream must have 
descended in a beautiful fall. This perpendicular 
wall is worn in by the former action of the water in 
the shape of a gouge, and in the most perfect manner; 
and as one looks upon it in all its grandeur, but with- 
out the presence of the cause by which it was formed, 
he can scarcely divest his mind of the impression that 
he is gazing upon some stupendous work of art. 

Returning to the present brook, we again pursued 
our way toward the fall, but had not advanced far 
before we arrived at another, on the left hand side of 
the brook, similar in many respects, but much larger 
and higher than the one above mentioned. The form- 
ing agent cannot be mistaken, when a careful survey 
is made of either of these stupendous perpendicular 
troughs. The span is considerably wider at the bot- 
tom than at the top, this result being produced by the 
spreading of the sheet of water as it was precipitated 
from the dizzy height above. The breadth of this 
one is about twenty feet at the bottom, and its depth 
about fourteen feet. But its depth and span gradually 
diminish from the bottom to the top, and the rock is 
worn as smooth as if chiselled by the hand of an artist. 
Moss and small plants have sprung out from the little 


soil that has accumulated in the crevices, but not 
enough to conceal the rock from observation. It 
would be an object worth the toil to discover what has 
turned the stream from its original channel. 

Leaving this singular curiosity, we pursued our way 
a few yards farther, when we arrived at the fall. This 
is from eighty to one hundred feet high, and the water 
is compressed into a very narrow space just where it 
breaks forth from the rock above. It is quite a pretty 
sheet of water when the stream is high. We learned 
from the natives that there are two falls above this, 
both of which are shut out from the view from below, 
by a sudden turn in the course of the stream. The 
perpendicular height of each is said to be much greater 
than of the one we saw. The upper one is visible 
from the road on the seashore, which is more than 
two miles distant, and, judging from information 
obtained, must be between two and three hundred feet 
high. The impossibility of climbing the perpendicu- 
lar banks from below deprived us of the pleasure of 
farther ascending the stream toward its source. This 
can be done only by commencing at the plain and fol- 
lowing up one of the lateral ridges. This would itself 
be a laborious and fatiguing task, as the way would be 
obstructed by a thick growth cf trees and tangled 

The path leading to this fall is full of interest to 
any one who loves to study nature. From where we 
leave our horses at the head of the valley and com- 
mence entering the mountain, every step presents new 
and peculiar beauties. The most luxuriant verdure 


clothes the ground, and in some places the beautifully 
burnished leaves of the ohia, or native apple-tree 
{Eugenia malaccensis)^ almost exclude the few rays of 
light that find their way down into this secluded nook. 
A little farther on, and the graceful bamboo sends up 
its slender stalk to a great height, mingling its dark, 
glossy foliage with the silvery leaves of the kukui, or 
candle-nut {Aleurites moluccand)\ these together form 
a striking contrast to the black walls which rise in 
such sullen grandeur on each side. 

Nor is the beauty of the spot confined to the lux- 
uriant verdure, or the stupendous walls and beetling 
crags. The stream itself is beautiful. From the basin 
at the falls to the lowest point at which we observed 
it, every succeeding step presents a delightful change. 
Here, its partially confined waters burst forth with 
considerable force, and struggle on among the oppos- 
ing rocks for some distance; there, collected in a little 
basin, its limpid waves, pure as the drops of dew from 
the womb of the morning, circle round in ceaseless 
eddies, until they get within the influence of the down- 
ward current, when away they whirl, with a gurgling, 
happy sound, as if joyous at being released from their 
temporary confinement. Again, an aged kukui, whose 
trunk is white with the moss of accumulated years, 
throws his broad boughs far over the stream that 
nourishes his vigorous roots, casting a meridian shadow 
upon the surface of the water, which is reflected back 
with singular distinctness from its mirrored bosom. 

To every other gratification must be added the in- 
comparable fragrance of the fresh wood, in perpetual 



life and vigor, which presents a freshness truly grate- 
ful to the senses. But it is in vain to think of con- 
veying an adequate idea of a scene where the sub- 
lime is mingled with the beautiful, and the bold and 
striking with the delicate and sensitive; where every 
sense is gratified, the mind calmed, and the whole 
soul delighted. 

Famed as this spot is for its natural scenic attrac- 
tions, intimated in the foregoing description, its claim 
of distinction with Hawaiians is indelibly fixed by the 
traditions of ancient times, the narration of which, at 
this point, will assist the reader to understand the 
character of the native mind and throw some light 
also on the history of the Hawaiians. 

Tradition in this locality deals largely with Kama- 
puaa, the famous demigod whose exploits figure 
prominently in the legends of the entire group. Sum- 
marized, the story is about as follows: 

Kamapuaa, the fabulous being referred to, seems, 
according to the tradition, to have possessed the power 
of transforming himself into a hog, in which capacity 
he committed all manner of depredations upon the 
possessions of his neighbors. He having stolen seme 
fowls belonging to Olopana, who was the King of 
Oahu, the latter, who was then living at Kaneohe, 
sent some of his men to secure the thief. They suc- 
ceeded in capturing him, and having tied him fast with 
cords, were bearing him in triumph to the King, 
when, thinking they had carried the joke far enough, 
he burst the bands with which he was bound, and 
killed all the men except one, whom he permitted to 


convey the tidings to the King. This defeat so 
enraged the monarch that he determined to go in per- 
son with all his force, and either destroy his enemy, or 
drive him from his dominions. He accordingly, des- 
pising ease inglorious, 

Waked up, with sound of conch and trumpet shell, 
The well-tried warriors of his native dell, 

at whose head he sought his waiting enemy. Success 
attending the King's attack, his foe was driven from 
the field with great loss, and betook himself to the 
gorge of Kaliuwaa, which leads to the falls. Here the 
King thought he had him safe; and one would think 
so too, to look at the immense precipices that rise on 
each side, and the falls in front. But the sequel will 
show that he had a slippery fellow to deal with, at 
least when he chose to assume the character of a swine; 
for, being pushed to the upper end of the gorge near 
the falls, and seeing no other way of escape, he sud- 
denly transformed himself into a hog, and, rearing 
upon his hind legs and leaning his back against the 
perpendicular precipice, thus afforded a very comfort- 
able ladder upon which the remnant of his army 
ascended and made their escape from the vengeance 
of the King. Possessing such powers, it is easy to see 
how he could follow the example of his soldiers and 
make his own escape. The smooth channels before 
described are said to have been made by him on these 
occasions; for he was more than once caught in the 
same predicament. Old natives still believe that they 
are the prints of his back; and they account for a very 


natural phenomenon, by bringing to their aid this 
most natural and foolish superstition. 

Many objects in the neighborhood are identified 
with this remarkable personage, such as a large rock 
to which he was tied, a wide place in the brook where 
he used to drink, and a number of trees he is said to 
have planted. Many other things respecting him are 
current, but as they do not relate to the matter in 
hand, it will perhaps suffice to say, in conclusion, that 
tradition further asserts that Kamapuaa conquered the 
volcano, when Pele its goddess became his wife, and 
that they afterward lived together in harmony. That 
is the reason why there are no more islands formed, or 
very extensive eruptions in these later days, as boiling 
lava was the most potent weapon she used in fighting 
her enemies, throwing out such quantities as greatly to 
increase the size of the islands, and even to form new 

Visitors to the falls, even to this day, meet with 
evidences of the superstitious awe in which the locality 
is held by the natives. A party who recently visited 
the spot states that when they reached the falls they 
were instructed to make an offering to the presiding 
goddess. This was done in true Hawaiian style; they 
built a tiny pile of stones on one or two large leaves, 
and so made themselves safe from falling stones, which 
otherwise would assuredly have struck them. 



' I V HE following is a fair specimen of the animal 
myths current in ancient Hawaii, and illustrates 
the place held by the owl in Hawaiian mythology. 

There lived a man named Kapoi, at Kahehuna, in 
Honolulu, who went one day to Kewalo to get some 
thatching for his house. On his way back he found 
some owl's eggs, which he gathered together and 
brought home with him. In the evening he wrapped 
them in ti leaves and was about to roast them in hot 
ashes, when an owl perched on the fence which sur- 
rounded his house and called out to him, "O Kapoi, 
give me my eggs!" 

Kapoi asked the owl, "How many eggs had you?" 

"Seven eggs," replied the owl. 

Kapoi then said, " Well, I wish to roast these eggs 
for my supper." 

The owl asked the second time for its eggs, and was 
answered by Kapoi in the same manner. Then said 
the owl, "O heartless Kapoi! why don't you take pity 
on me ? Give me my eggs." 

Kapoi then told the owl to come and take them. 

The owl, having got the eggs, told Kapoi to build 
up a heiau, or temple, and instructed him to make an 



altar and call the temple by the name of Manua. 
Kapoi built the temple as directed ; set kapu days for 
its dedication, and placed the customary sacrifice on 
the altar. 

News spread to the hearing of Kakuihewa, who was 
then King of Oahu, living at the time at Waikiki, 
that a certain man had kapued certain days for his 
heiau, and had already dedicated it. This King had 
made a law that whoever among his people should 
erect a heiau and kapu the same before the King had 
his temple kapued, that man should pay the penalty of 
death. Kapoi was thereupon seized, by the King's 
orders, and led to the heiau of Kupalaha, at Waikiki. 

That same day, the owl that had told Kapoi to 
erect a temple gathered all the owls from Lanai, Maui, 
Molokai, and Hawaii to one place at Kalapueo. 1 All 
those from the Koolau districts were assembled at 
Kanoniakapueo, 2 and those from Kauai and Niihau at 
Pueohulunui, near Moanalua. 

It was decided by the King that Kapoi should be 
put to death on the day of Kane. 3 When that day 
came, at daybreak the owls left their places of rendez- 
vous and covered the whole sky over Honolulu ; and 
as the King's servants seized Kapoi to put him to 
death, the owls flew at them, pecking them with their 
beaks and scratching them with their claws. Then and 
there was fought the battle between Kakuihewa's 
people and the owls. At last the owls conquered, and 

1 Situate beyond Diamond Head. 

2 In Nuuanu Valley. 

3 When the moon is twenty-seven days old. 


Kapoi was released, the King acknowledging that his 
Akua (god) was a powerful one. From that time the 
owl has been recognized as one of the many deities 
venerated by the Hawaiian people. 





TT is stated in the history of Kaopulupulu that he 
was famed among the kahunas of the island of 
Oahu for his power and wisdom in the exercise of his 
profession, and was known throughout the land as a 
leader among the priests. His place of residence was 
at Waimea, between Koolauloa and Waialua, Oahu. 
There he married, and there was born to him a son 
whom he named Kahulupue, and whom he instructed 
during his youth in all priestly vocations. 

In after years when Kumahana, brother of Kahahana 
of Maui, became the governing chief {alii aimoku) of 
Oahu, Kahulupue was chosen by him as his priest. 
This chief did evil unto his subjects, seizing their 
property and beheading and maiming many with the 
leiomano (shark's tooth weapon) and pahoa (dagger), 
without provocation, so that he became a reproach to 
his people. From such treatment Kahulupue en- 
deavored to dissuade him, assuring him that such a 
course would fail to win their support and obedience, 
whereas the supplying of food and fish, with covering 



for the body, and malos, would insure their affection- 
ate regard. The day of the people was near, for the 
time of conflict was approaching when he would meet 
the enemy. But these counsels of Kahulupue were 
disregarded, so he returned to his father at Waimea. 

Not long thereafter this chief Kumahana was cast 
out and rejected by the lesser chiefs and people, and 
under cover of night he escaped by canoe to Molokai, 
where he was ignored and became lost to further history 
in consequence of his wrong-doings. 

When Kahekili, King of Maui, heard of the stealthy 
flight of the governing chief of Oahu, he placed the 
young prince Kahahana, his foster-son, as ruler over 
Oahu in the place of his deposed relative, Kumahana. 
This occurred about the year 1773, and Kahahana 
took with him as his intimate friend and companion 
one Alapai. Kahahana chose as his place of residence 
the shade of the kou and cocoanut trees of Ulukou, 
Waikiki, where also gathered together the chiefs of the 
island to discuss and consider questions of state. 

The new ruler being of fine and stalwart form and 
handsome appearance, the chiefs and common people 
maintained that his fame in this respect induced a cele- 
brated chieftainess of Kauai, named Kekuapoi, to voy- 
age hither. Her history, it is said, showed that she 
alone excelled in maiden charm and beauty; she was 
handsome beyond all other chiefesses from Hawaii 
to Kauai, as "the third brightness of the sun" {he ekolu 
ula ka la). In consequence, Kahahana took her as 
his wife, she being own sister to Kekuamanoha. 

At this time the thought occurred to the King to 


inquire through the chiefs of Oahu of the whereabouts 
of Kaopulupulu, the celebrated priest, of whom he 
had heard through Kahekili, King of Maui. In reply- 
to this inquiry of Kahahana, the chiefs told him that 
his place of residence was at Waimea, whereupon a 
messenger was sent to bid him come up by order of 
the King. When the messenger reached Kaopulupulu 
he delivered the royal order. Upon the priest hearing 
this word of the King he assented thereto, with this 
reply to the messenger: "You return first and tell him 
that on the morning after the fourteenth night of the 
moon (po akua), I will reach the place of the King." 

At the end of the conference the messenger returned 
and stood before Kahahana and revealed the words of 
Kaopulupulu; and the King waited for the time of his 

It is true, Kaopulupulu made careful preparation for 
his future. Toward the time of his departure he was 
engaged in considering the good or evil of his ap- 
proaching journey by the casting of lots, according to 
the rites of his profession. He foresaw thereby the 
purpose of the King in summoning him to dwell at 
court. He therefore admonished his son to attend to 
all the rites and duties of the priesthood as he had been 
taught, and to care for his mother and relatives. 

At early dawn Kaopulupulu arose and partook of 
food till satisfied, after which he prepared himself for 
the journey before him. After he had given his fare- 
well greetings to his household he seized his bundle 
and, taking a cocoanut fan in his hand, set out toward 
Punanue, where was a temple (heiau) for priests only, 


called Kahokuwelowelo. This was crown land at Waia- 
lua in ancient times. Entering the temple he prayed 
for success in his journey, after which he proceeded 
along the plains of Lauhulu till reaching the Anahulu 
stream, thence by Kemoo to Kukaniloko, the shelter 
of whose prominent rock the chiefesses of Oahu were 
wont to choose for their place of confinement. 

Leaving this place he came to Kalakoa, where 
Kekiopilo the prophet priest lived and died, and the 
scene of his vision at high noon when he prophesied 
of the coming of foreigners with a strange language. 
Here he stopped and rested with some of the people, 
and ate food with them, after which he journeyed on 
by way of Waipio by the ancient path of that time till 
he passed Ewa and reached Kapukaki. 

The sun was well up when he reached the water of 
Lapakea, so he hastened his steps in ascending Kau- 
walua, at Moanalua, and paused not till he came to 
the mouth of the Apuakehau stream at Waikiki. 
Proceeding along the sand at this place he was dis- 
cerned by the retainers of the King and greeted with 
the shout, "Here comes the priest Kaopulupulu." 

When the King heard this he was exceedingly 
pleased {jpihoihoi loo) at the time, and on the priest's 
meeting with King Kahahana he welcomed Kaopulu- 
pulu with loud rejoicing. 

Without delay the King set apart a house wherein 
to meet and discuss with the priest those things he 
had in mind, and in the consideration of questions 
from first to last, Kaopulupulu replied with great 
wisdom in accordance with his knowledge of his pro- 


fession. At this time of their conference he sat within 
the doorway of the house, and the sun was near its 
setting. As he turned to observe this he gazed out 
into the sky and noticing the gathering short clouds 
(ao poko) in the heavens, he exclaimed: 

"O heaven, the road is broad for the King, it is full 
of chiefs and people; narrow is my path, that of the 
kahuna; you will not be able to find it, O King. 
Even now the short clouds reveal to me the manner 
of your reign; it will not be many days. Should you 
heed my words, O King, you will live to gray hair. 
But you will be the king to slay me and my child." 

At these words of the priest the King meditated 
seriously for some time, then spoke as follows: "Why 
should my days be short, and why should your death 
be by me, the King?" 

Kaopulupulu replied: "O King, let us look into the 
future. Should you die, O King, the lands will be 
desolate; but for me, the kahuna, the name will live 
on from one generation to another; but my death will 
be befpre thine, and when I am up on the heaven- 
feared altar then my words will gnaw thee, O King, 
and the rains and the sun will bear witness." 

These courageous words of Kaopulupulu, spoken 
in the presence of Kahahana without fear, and regard- 
less of the dignity and majesty of the King, were 
uttered because of the certainty that the time would 
come when his words would be carried into effect. 
The King remained quiet without saying a word, 
keeping his thoughts to himself. 

After this conference the King took Kaopulupulu 


to be his priest, and in course of time he became also 
an intimate companion,, in constant attendance upon 
the King, ancl counselled him in the care of his sub- 
jects, old and young, in alJ that pertained to their 
welfare. The King regarded his words, and in their 
circuit of the island together they found the people 
contented and holding their ruler in high esteem. 
But at the end of three years the King attempted some 
wrong to certain of his subjects like unto that of his 
deposed predecessor. The priest remonstrated with 
him continually, but he would not regard his counsel; 
therefore, Kaopulupulu left King Kahahana and re- 
turned to his land at Waimea and at once tattooed his 
knees. This was done as a sign that the King had 
turned a deaf ear to his admonitions. 

When several days had passed, rumors among cer- 
tain people of Waialua reached the priest that he was 
to be summoned to appear before the King in conse- 
quence of this act, which had greatly angered his 
august lord. Kahahana had gone to reside at Waianae, 
and from there shortly afterward he sent messengers 
to fetch Kaopulupulu and his son Kahulupue from 

In the early morning of the day of the messenger's 
arrival, a rainbow stood directly in the doorway of 
Kaopulupulu's house, and he asked of his god its 
meaning; but his prayer was broken {ua haki kapule). 
This boded him ill; therefore he called to his son to 
stand in prayer; but the result was the same. Then 
he said, "This augurs of the day of death; see! the 
rising up of a man in the pass of Hapuu, putting on 


his kapa with its knot fastening on the left side of the 
neck, which means that he is bringing a death 

Shortly after the priest had ended these words a 
man was indeed seen approaching along the mountain 
pass, with his kapa as indicated; and he came and 
stood before the door of their house and delivered the 
order of the King for them to go to Waianae, both 
him and his son. 

The priest replied: "Return you first; we will 
follow later," and the messenger obeyed. When he 
had departed Kaopulupulu recalled to his son the 
words he had spoken before the advent of the mes- 
senger, and said: "Oh, where are you, my child? Go 
clothe the body; put on the malo; eat of the food till 
satisfied, and we will go as commanded by the King; 
but this journey will result in placing us on the altar 
(kau i ka lele). Fear not death. The name of an 
idler, if he be beaten to death, is not passed on to 

At the end of these words of his father, Kahulupue 
wept for love of his relatives, though his father bid 
him to weep not for his family, because he, Kaopulu- 
pulu, saw the end that would befall the King, 
Kahahana, and his court of chiefs and retainers. 
Even at this time the voices of distress were heard 
among his family and their tears flowed, but Kaopulu- 
pulu looked on unmoved by their cries. 

He then arose and, with his son, gave farewell greet- 
ings to their household, and set forth. In journeying 
they passed through Waialua, resting in the house of 


a kamaaina at Kawaihapai. In passing the night at 
this place Kahulupue slept not, but went out to exam- 
ine the fishing canoes of that neighborhood. Finding 
a large one suitable for a voyage, he returned and 
awoke his father, that they might flee together that 
night to Kauai and dwell on the knoll of Kalalea. 
But Kaopulupulu declined the idea of flight. In the 
morning, ascending a hill, they turned and looked 
back over the sea-spray of Waialua to the swimming 
halas of Kahuku beyond. Love for the place of his 
birth so overcame Kaopulupulu for a time that his 
tears flowed for that he should see it no more. 

Then they proceeded on their way till, passing 
Kaena Point, they reached the temple of Puaakanoe. 
At this sacred boundary Kaopulupulu said to his son, 
"Let us swim in the sea and touch along the coast of 
Makua." At one of their resting-places, journeying 
thus, he said, with direct truthfulness, as his words 
proved: "Where are you, my son? For this drench- 
ing of the high priests by the sea, seized will be the 
sacred lands (moo-kapu) from Waianae to Kualoa by 
the chief from the east." 

As they were talking they beheld the King's men 
approaching along the sand of Makua, and shortly 
afterward these men came before them and seized 
them and tied their hands behind their backs and took 
them to the place of King Kahahana at Puukea, 
Waianae, and put them, father and son, in a new grass 
hut unfinished of its ridge thatch, and tied them, the 
one to the end post (pouhana) and the other to the 
corner post (poumanu) of the house. 


At the time of the imprisonment of the priest and 
his son in this new house Kaopulupulu spake aloud, 
without fear of dire consequences, so that the King 
and all his men heard him, as follows: "Here I am 
with my son in this new unfinished house; so will be 
unfinished the reign of the King that slays us." At 
this saying Kahahana, the King, was very angry. 

Throughout that day and the night following, till 
the sun was high with warmth, the King was directing 
his soldiers to seize Kahulupue first and put him to 
death. Obeying the orders of the King, they took 
Kahulupue just outside of the house and stabbed at 
his eyes with laumake spears and stoned him with 
stones before the eyes of his father, with merciless 
cruelty. These things, though done by the soldiers, 
were dodged by Kahulupue, and the priest, seeing the 
King had no thought of regard for his child, spoke up 
with priestly authority, as follows: "Be strong of 
breath, my son, till the body touch the water, for the 
land indeed is the sea's." 

When Kahulupue heard the voice of his father tell- 
ing him to flee to the sea, he turned toward the shore 
in obedience to these last words to him, because of the 
attack by the soldiers of the King. As he ran, he was 
struck in the back by a spear, but he persevered and 
leaped into the sea at Malae and was drowned, his 
blood discoloring the water. His dead body was 
taken and placed up in the temple at Puehuehu. 
After the kapu days therefore the King, with his chiefs 
and soldiers, moved to Puuloa, Ewa, bringing with 
them the priest Kaopulupulu, and after some days 


he was brought before the King by the soldiers, and 
without groans for his injuries was slain in the King's 
presence. But he spoke fearlessly of the vengeance 
that would fall upon the King in consequence of his 
death, and during their murderous attack upon him 
proclaimed with his dying breath: "You, O King, 
that kill me here at Puuloa, the time is near when a 
direct death will be yours. Above here in this land, 
and the spot where my lifeless body will be borne and 
placed high on the altar for my flesh to decay and slip 
to the earth, shall be the burial place of chiefs and 
people hereafter, and it shall be called 'the royal sand 
of the mistaken'; there will you be placed in the 
temple." At the end of these words of Kaopulupulu 
his spirit took flight, and his body was left for mockery 
and abuse, as had been that of his son in the sea of 
Make, at Waianae. 

After a while the body of the priest was placed on 
a double canoe and brought to Waikiki and placed high 
in the cocoanut trees at Kukaeunahi, the place of the 
temple, for several ten-day periods {he mau anahulu) 
without decomposition and falling off of the flesh to 
the sands of Waikiki. 

When King Kahekili of Maui heard of the death 
of the priest Kaopulupulu by Kahahana, he sent some 
of his men thither by canoe, who landed at Waiman- 
alo, Koolau, where, as spies, they learned from the 
people respecting Kaopulupulu and his death, with 
that of his son; therefore they returned and told the 
King the truth of these reports, at which the affection 
of Kahekili welled up for the dead priest, and he con- 


demned the King he had established. Coming with 
an army from Maui, he landed at Waikiki without 
meeting Kahahana, and took back the government of 
Oahu under his own kingship. The chiefs and people 
of Oahu all joined under Kahekili, for Kahahana had 
been a chief of wrong-doing. This was the first sea of 
Kaopulupulu in accordance with his prophetic utter- 
ance to his son, "This land is the sea's." 

Upon the arrival here at Oahu of Kahekili, Kaha- 
hana fled, with his wife Kekuapoi, and friend Alapai, 
and hid in the shrubbery of the hills. They went to 
Aliomanu, Moanalua, to a place called Kinimakale- 
hua; then moved along to Keanapuaa and Kepookala, 
at the lochs of Puuloa, and from there to upper Wai- 
pio; thence to Wahiawa, Helemano, and on to Lihue; 
thence they came to Foohilo, at Honouliuli, where 
they first showed themselves to the people and sub- 
mitted themselves to their care. 

While they were living there, report thereof was 
made to Kahekili, the King, who thereupon sent 
Kekuamanoha, elder brother of Kekuapoi, the wife of 
Kahahana, with men in double canoes from Waikiki, 
landing first at Kupahu, Hanapouli, Waipio, with 
instructions to capture and put to death Kahahana, as 
also his friend Alapai, but to save alive Kekuapoi. 
When the canoes touched at Hanapouli, they pro- 
ceeded thence to Waikele and Hoaeae, and from there 
to Poohilo, Honouliuli, where they met in conference 
with Kahahana and his party. At the close of the day 
Kekuamanoha sought by enticing words to induce his 
brother-in-law to go up with him and see the father 


King and be assured of no death condemnation, and by 
skilled flattery he induced Kahahana to consent to his 
proposition; whereupon preparation was made for the 
return. On the following morning, coming along and 
reaching the plains of Hoaeae, they fell upon and slew 
Kahahana and Alapai there, and bore their lifeless 
bodies to Halaulani, Waipio, where they were placed 
in the canoes and brought up to Waikiki and placed 
up in the cocoanut trees by King Kahekili and his 
priests from Maui, as Kaopulupulu had been. Thus 
was fulfilled the famous saying of the Oahu priest in 
all its truthfulness. 

According to the writings of S. M. Kamakau and 
David Malo, recognized authorities, the thought of 
Kaopulupulu as expressed to his son Kahulupue, 
"This land is the sea's," was in keeping with the 
famous prophetic vision of Kekiopilo that "the for- 
eigners possess the land," as the people of Hawaii now 
realize. The weighty thought of this narration and 
the application of the saying of Kaopulupulu to this 
time of enlightenment are frequent with certain leaders 
of thought among the people, as shown in their papers. 




^pHE story of Ku-ula, considered by ancient 
Hawaiians as the deity presiding over and con- 
trolling the fish of the sea, — a story still believed by 
many of them to-day, — is translated and somewhat 
condensed from an account prepared by a recognized 
legendary bard of these islands. The name of Ku-ula 
is known from the ancient times on each of the islands 
of the Hawaiian group, and the writer gives the Maui 
version as transmitted through the old people of that 

Ku-ula had a human body, and was possessed with 
wonderful or miraculous power (mana kupud) in direct- 
ing, controlling, and influencing all fish of the sea, at 

Leho-ula, in the land of Aleamai, Hana, Maui, is 
where Ku-ula and Hina-pu-ku-ia lived. Nothing is 
known of their parents, but tradition deals with 
Ku-ula, his wife, their son Ai-ai, and Ku-ula-uka, a 
younger brother of Ku-ula. These lived together for 
a time at Leho-ula, and then the brothers divided 
their work between them, Ku-ula-uka choosing farm 
work, or work pertaining to the land, from the sea- 
shore to the mountain-top, while Ku-ula — known also 



as Ku-ula-kai — chose to be a fisherman, with such other 
work as pertained to the sea, from the pebbly shore to 
ocean depths. After this division Ku-ula-uka went 
up in the mountains to live, and met a woman known 
as La-ea — called also Hina-ulu-ohia — a sister of Hina- 
pu-ku-ia, Ku-ula's wife. These sisters had three 
brothers, named Moku-ha-lii, Kupa-ai-kee, and 
Ku-pulu-pulu-i-ka-na-hele. This trio were called by 
the old people the gods of the canoe-making priests 
— "Na akua aumakua o ka poe kahuna kalai waa." 

While Ku-ula and his wife were living at Leho-ula 
he devoted all his time to his chosen vocation, fishing. 
His first work, was to construct a fish-pond handy to 
his house but near to the shore where the surf breaks, 
and this pond he stocked with all kinds of fish. Upon 
a rocky platform he also built a house to be sacred for 
the fishing kapu which he called by his own name, 

It is asserted that when Ku-ula made all these prep- 
arations he believed in the existence of a God who had 
supreme power over all things. That is why he pre- 
pared this place wherein to make his offerings of the 
first fish caught by him to the fish god. From this 
observance of Ku-ula all the fish were tractable {laka 
loa) unto him; all he had to do was to say the word, 
and the fish would appear. This was reported all 
over Hana and when Kamohoalii the King (who 
was then living at Wananalua, the land on which 
Kauiki Hill stands) heard of it, he appointed Ku-ula 
to be his head fisherman. Through this pond, which 
was well stocked with all kinds of fish, the King's 


table was regularly supplied with all rare varieties, 
whether in or out of season. Ku-ula was his main- 
stay for fish-food and was consequently held in high 
esteem by Kamohoalii, and they lived without dis- 
agreement of any kind between them for many years. 

During this period the wife of Ku-ula gave birth to 
a son, whom they called Aiai-a-Ku-ula (Aiai of 
Ku-ula). The child was properly brought up accord- 
ing to the usage of those days, and when he was old 
enough to care for himself an unusual event occurred. 

A large puhi (eel), called Koona, lived at Wailau, 
on the windward side of the island of Molokai. This 
eel was deified and prayed to by the people of that 
place, and they never tired telling of the mighty things 
their god did, one of which was that a big shark came 
to Wailau and gave it battle, and during the fight the 
puhi caused a part of the rocky cliff to fall upon the 
shark, which killed it. A cave was thus formed, with 
a depth of about five fathoms; and that large opening 
is there to this day, situate a little above the sea and 
close to the rocky fort where lived the well known 
Kapepeekauila. This puhi then left its own place and 
came and lived in a cave in the sea near Aleamai, 
called Kapukaulua, some distance out from the Alau 
rocks. It came to break and rob the pond that 
Ku-ula had built and stocked with fish of various 
kinds and colors, as known to-day. 

Ku-ula was much surprised on discovering his pond 
stock disappearing, so he watched day and night, and 
at last, about daybreak, he saw a large eel come in 
through the makai (seaward) wall of the pond. When 


he saw this he knew that it was the cause of the loss 
of his fish, and was devising a way to catch and kill 
it; but on consulting with his wife they decided to 
leave the matter to their son Aiai, for him to use his 
own judgment as to the means by which the thief 
might be captured and killed. When Aiai was told 
of it he sent word to all the people of Aleamai and 
Haneoo to make ili hau ropes several lau fathoms in 
length; and when all was ready a number of the peo- 
ple went out with it in two canoes, one each from the 
two places, with Aiai-a-Ku-ula in one of them. He 
put two large stones in his canoe and held in his hands 
a fisherman's gourd (hokeo), in which was a large fish- 
hook called manaiaakalani. 

When the canoes had proceeded far out he located 
his position by landmarks; and looking down into the 
sea, and finding the right place, he told the paddlers to 
cease paddling. Standing up in the canoe and taking 
one of the stones in his hands he dived into the sea. 
Its weight took him down rapidly to the bottom, where 
he saw a big cave opening right before him, with a 
number of fishes scurrying about the entrance, such as 
uluas and other deep sea varieties. Feeling assured 
thereby that the puhi was within, he arose to the surface 
and got into his canoe. Resting for a moment, he then 
opened the gourd and took out the hook manaiaakalani 
and tied the hau rope to it. He also picked up a long 
stick and placed at the end of it the hook, baited with 
a preparation of cocoanut and other substances attractive 
to fishes. Before taking his second dive he arranged 
with those on the canoe as to the signs to them of his 


success. Saying this, he picked up the other stone and 
dived down again into the sea; then, proceeding to the 
cave, he placed the hook in it, at the same time mur- 
muring a few incantations in the name of his parents. 
When he knew that the puhi was hooked he signalled, 
as planned, to tell those on the canoe of his success. 
In a short while he came to the surface, and entering 
the canoe they all returned to shore, trailing the rope 
behind. He told those in the canoe from Haneoo to 
paddle thither and to Hamoa, and to tell all the people 
to pull the puhi; like instructions were given those on 
the Aleamai canoe for their people. The two canoes 
set forth on their courses to the landings, keeping in 
mind Aiai's instructions, which were duly carried out 
by the people of the two places; and there were many 
for the work. 

Then Aiai ascended Kaiwiopele Hill and motioned 
to the people of both places to pull the ropes attached 
to the hook on the mouth of the puhi. It was said 
that the Aleamai people won the victory over the much 
greater number from the other places, by landing the 
puhi on the pahoehoe stones at Lehoula. The people 
endeavored to kill the prize, but without success till 
Aiai came and threw three ala stones at it and killed 
it. The head was cut off and cooked in the imu (oven). 
The bones of its jaw, with the mouth wide open, are 
seen to this day at a place near the shore, washed by 
the waves, — the rock formation at a short distance 
having such a resemblance. 

Residents of the place state that all ala stones near 
where the imu was made in which the puhi was baked 


do not crack when heated, as they do elsewhere, be- 
cause of the imu heating of that time. It is so even to 
this day. The backbone (iwi kuamoo) of this puhi is 
still lying on the pahoehoe where Aiai killed it with the 
three ala stones, — the rocky formation, about thirty feet 
in length, exactly resembling the backbone of an eel. 
The killing of this puhi by Aiai gave him fame among 
the people of Hana. Its capture was the young lad's 
first attempt to follow his father's vocation, and his 
knowledge was a surprise to the people. 

After this event a man came over from Wailau, 
Molokai, who was a kahu (keeper) of the puhi. He 
dreamed one night that he saw its spirit, which told 
him that his aumakua (god) had been killed at Hana, 
so he came to see with his own eyes where this had 
occurred. Arriving at Wananalua he was befriended 
by one of the retainers of Kamohoalii, the King of 
Hana, and lived there a long time serving under him, 
during which time he learned the story of how the puhi 
had been caught and killed by Aiai, the son of Ku-ula 
and Hinapukuia, whereupon he sought to accomplish 
their death. 

Considering a plan of action, he went one day to 
Ku-ula, without orders, and told him that the King had 
sent him for fish for the King. Ku-ula gave him but 
one fish, an ulua, with a warning direction, saying, 
"Go back to the King and tell him to cut off the head 
of the fish and cook it in the imu, and the flesh of its 
body cut up and salt and dry in the sun, for 'this is 
Hana the aupehu land; Hana of the scarce fish; the fish 
Kama; the fish of Lanakila.' (Eia o Hana la he aina 


aupehu; Hana keia i ka ia iki; ka ia Kama; ka ia 

When the man returned to the King and gave him 
the fish, the King asked: "Who gave it to you?" and 
the man answered: 


Then it came into his head that this was his chance 
for revenge, so he told the King what Ku-ula had said 
but not in the same way, saying: "Your head fisher- 
man told me to come back and tell you that your head 
should be cut from your body and cooked in the imu, 
and the flesh of your body should be cut up and salted 
and dried in the sun." 

The King on hearing this message was so angered 
with Ku-ula, his head fisherman, that he told the man 
to go and tell all his konohikis (head men of lands with 
others under them) and people, to go up in the moun- 
tains and gather immediately plenty of firewood and 
place it around Ku-ula's house, for he and his wife and 
child should be burned up. 

This order of the King was carried out by the kono- 
hikis and people of all his lands except those of Aleamai. 
These latter did not obey this order of the King, for 
Ku-ula had always lived peaceably among them. 
There were days when they had no fish, and he had 
supplied them freely. 

When Ku-ula and his wife saw the people of Hana 
bringing firewood and placing it around the house they 
knew it foreboded trouble; so Ku-ula went to a place 
where taro, potatoes, bananas, cane, and some gourds 
were growing. Seeing three dry gourds on the vine, 


he asked the owner for them and was told to take them. 
These he took to his house and discussed with his wife 
the evil day to come, and told Aiai that their house 
would be burned and their bodies too, but not to fear 
death nor trouble himself about it when the people 
came to shut them in. 

After some thinking Ku-ula remembered his giving 
the ulua to the King's retainer and felt that he was the 
party to blame for this action of the King's people. 
He had suspected it before, but now felt sure; therefore 
he turned to his son and said: "Our child, Aiai-a- Ku- 
ula, if our house is burned, and our bodies too, you 
must look sharp for the smoke when it goes straight 
up to the hill of Kaiwiopele. That will be your way 
out of this trouble, and you must follow it till you find 
a cave where you will live. You must take this hook 
called manaiaakalani with you; also this fish-pearl 
{pa hi aku), called Kahuoi; this shell called lehoula> and 
this small sandstone from which I got the name they 
call me, Ku-ula-au-a-Ku-ulakai. It is the progenitor of 
all the fish in the sea. You will be the one to make 
all the ku-ulas from this time forth, and have charge 
also of making all the fishing stations {koa lawaid) in 
the sea throughout the islands. Your name shall be 
perpetuated and those of your parents also, through all 
generations to come, and I hereby confer upon you all 
my power and knowledge. Whenever you desire any- 
thing call, or ask, in our names, and we will grant it. 
We will stand up and go forth from here into the sea 
and abide there forever; and you, our child, shall live on 
the land here without worrying about anything that 


may happen to you. You will have power to punish 
with death all those who have helped to burn us and 
our house. Whether it be king or people, they must 
die; therefore let us calmly await the calamity that is to 
befall us." 

All these instructions Aiai consented to carry out 
from first to last, as a dutiful son. 

After Ku-ula's instructions to his son, consequent 
upon the manifestations of coming trouble, the King's 
people came one day and caught them and tied their 
hands behind their backs, the evil-doer from Molokai 
being there to aid in executing the cruel orders of 
Kamohoalii resulting from his deceitful story. Upon 
being taken into their house Ku-ula was tied to the 
end post of the ridge pole (pouhana), the wife was 
tied to the middle post (kai waend) of the house, and 
the boy, Aiai, was tied to one of the corner posts (pou 
manu). Upon fastening them in this manner the 
people went out of the house and barricaded the door- 
way with wood, which they then set on fire. Before 
the fire was lit, the ropes with which the victims were 
tied dropped off from their hands. Men, women,- 
and children looked on at the burning house with 
deep pity for those within, and tears were streaming 
down their cheeks as they remembered the kindness of 
Ku-ula during all the time they had lived together. 
They knew not why this family and their house should 
be burned in this manner. 

When the fire was raging all about the house and 
the flames were consuming everything, Ku-ula and his 
wife gave their last message to their son and left him. 


They went right out of the house as quietly as the last 
breath leaves the body, and none of the people stand- 
ing there gazing saw where, or how, Ku-ula and his 
wife came forth out of the house. Aiai was the only 
one that retained material form. Their bodies were 
changed by some miraculous power and entered the sea, 
taking with them all the fish swimming in and around 
Hana. They also took all sea-mosses, crabs, crawfish, 
and the various kinds of shellfish along the seashore, 
even to the opihi-koele at the rocky beach; every edi- 
ble thing in the sea was taken away. This was the first 
stroke of Ku-ula's revenge on the King and the people 
of Hana who obeyed his mandate; they suffered greatly 
from the scarcity offish. 

When Ku-ula and his wife were out of the house the 
three gourds exploded from the heat, one by one, and 
all those who were gazing at the burning house believed 
the detonations indicated the bursting of the bodies of 
Ku-ula, his wife, and child. The flames shot up 
through the top of the house, and the black smoke hov- 
ered above it, then turned toward the front of Kaiwio- 
pele Hill. The people saw Aiai ascend through the 
flames and walk upon the smoke toward the hill till 
he came to a small cave that opened to receive and 
rescue him. 

As Aiai left the house it burned fiercely, and, carry- 
ing out the instructions of his father he called upon 
him to destroy by fire all those who had caught and 
tied them in their burning house. As he finished 
his appeal he saw the rippling of the wind on the sea 
and a misty rain coming with it, increasing as it came 


till it reached Lehoula, which so increased the blazing 
of the fire that the flames reached out into the crowd 
of people for those who had obeyed the King. The 
man from Molokai, who was the cause of the trouble, 
was reached also and consumed by the fire, and the 
charred bodies were left to show to the people the sec- 
ond stroke of Ku-ula's vengeance. Strange to say, all 
those who had nothing to do with this cruel act, though 
closer to the burning house, were uninjured; the 
tongues of fire reached out only for the guilty ones. 
In a little while but a few smouldering logs and ashes 
were all that remained of the house of Ku-ula. Owing 
to this strange action of the fire some of the people 
doubted the death of Ku-ula and his wife, and much 
disputation arose among them on the subject. 

When Aiai walked out through the flames and smoke 
and reached the cave, he stayed there through that 
night till the next morning, then, leaving his hook, 
pearl shell, and stone there, he went forth till he came 
to the road at Puilio, where he met several children 
amusing themselves by shooting arrows, one of whom 
made friends with him and asked him to his house. 
Aiai accepted the invitation, and the boy and his par- 
ents treating him well, he remained with them for some 

While Aiai was living in their house the parents of 
the boy heard of the King's order for all the people of 
Hana to go fishing for hinalea. The people obeyed 
the royal order, but when they went down to the shore 
with their fishing baskets they looked around for the 
usual bait (ueue), which was to be pounded up and put 


into the baskets, but they could not find any, nor any 
other material to be so used, neither could they see 
any fish swimming around in the sea. "Why? " was 
the question. Because Ku-ula and his wife had taken 
with them all the fish and everything pertaining to 
fishing. Finding no bait they pounded up limestone 
and placed it in the baskets and swam out and set them 
in the sea. They watched and waited all day, but in 
vain, for not a single hinalea was seen, nor did any 
enter the baskets. When night came they went back 
empty-handed and came down again the next day only 
to meet the same luck. The parents of the boy who 
had befriended Aiai were in this fishing party, in obe- 
dience to the King's orders, but they got nothing for 
their trouble. Aiai, seeing them go down daily to 
Haneoo, asked concerning it, and was told everything; 
so he bade his friend come with him to the cave where 
he had stayed after his father's house was burned. 
Arriving there he showed the stone fish god, Pohaku- 
muone, and said: " We can get fish up here from this 
stone without much work or trouble." 

Then Aiai picked up the stone and they went down 
to Lehoula, and setting it down at a point facing the 
pond which his father had made he repeated these 
words: cc O Ku-ula, my father ; O Hina, my mother, 
I place this stone here in your name, Ku-ula, which 
action will make your name famous and mine too, 
your son ; the keeping cf this ku-ula stone I give to 
my friend, and he and his offspring hereafter will do 
and act in all things pertaining to it in our names." 

After saying these words he told his friend his duties 


and all things to be observed relative to the stone and 
the benefits to be derived therefrom as an influencing 
power over such variety of fish as he desired. This 
was the first establishment of the ko'a ku-ula on land, 
— a place where the fisherman was obliged to make his 
offering of the first of his catch by taking two fishes 
and placing them on the ku-ula stone as an offering to 
Ku-ula. Thus Aiai first put in practice the fishing 
oblations established by his father at the place of his 
birth, in his youth, but it was accomplished only 
through the mana kupua of his parents. 

When Aiai had finished calling on his parents and 
instructing his friend, there were seen several persons 
walking along the Haneoo beach with their fishing 
baskets and setting them in the sea, but catching noth- 
ing. At Aiai's suggestion he and his friend went over 
to witness this fishing effort. When they reached the 
fishers Aiai asked them, "What are those things placed 
there for ? " 

They answered, " Those are baskets for catching 
hinaleas, a fish that our King, Kamohoalii, longs for, 
but we cannot get bait to catch the fish with." 

"Why is it so? " asked Aiai. 

And they answered, " Because Ku-ula and his family 
are dead, and all the fish along the beach of Hana are 
taken away." 

Then Aiai asked them for two baskets. Having 
received them, he bade his friend take them and fol- 
low him. They went to a little pool near the beach, 
and setting the baskets therein, he called on his parents 
for hinaleas. As soon as he had finished, the fish 


were seen coming in such numbers as to fill the pool, 
and still they came. Aiai now told his friend to go 
and fetch his parents and relatives to get fish, and to 
bring baskets with which to take home a supply ; they 
should have the first pick, and the owners of the bas- 
kets should have the next chance. The messenger 
went with haste and brought his relatives as directed. 
Aiai then took two fishes and gave them to his friend 
to place on the ko'a they had established at Lehoula 
for the ku-ula. He also told him that before the set- 
ting of the sun of that day they would hear that King 
Kamohoalii of Hana was dead, choked and strangled 
to death by the fish. These prophetic words of Aiai 
came true. 

After Aiai had made his offering, his friend's parents 
came to where the fish were gathering and were told 
to take all they desired, which they did, returning home 
happy for the liberal supply obtained without trouble. 
The owners of the baskets were then called and told 
to take all the fish they wished for themselves and for 
the King. When these people saw the great supply 
they were glad and much surprised at the success of 
these two boys. The news of the reappearing of the 
fish spread through the district, and the people flocked 
in great numbers and gathered hinaleas to their satis- 
faction, and returned to their homes with rejoicing. 
Some of those who gave Aiai the baskets returned with 
their bundles of fish to the King. When he saw so 
many of those he had longed for he became so excited 
that he reached out and picked one up and put it 
in his mouth, intending to eat it ; but instead the 


fish slipped right into his throat and stuck there. 
Many tried to reach and take it out, but were unable, 
and before the sun set that day Kamohoalii, the King 
of Hana, died, being choked and strangled to death 
by the fish. Thus the words of Aiai, the son of Ku- 
ula, proved true. 

By the death of the King of Hana the revenge was 
complete. The evil-doer from Molokai, and those 
who obeyed the King's orders on the day Ku-ula's 
house was fired, met retribution, and Aiai thus won a 
victory over all his father's enemies. 

After living for a time at Hana Aiai left that place 
and went among the different islands of the group 
establishing fishing ko'as (ko'a aina aumakua). He 
was the first to measure the depth of the sea to locate 
these fishing ko'as for the deep sea fishermen who go 
out in their canoes, and the names of many of these 
ko'as located around the different islands are well 





A FTER the death of the King of Hana, Aiai left 
the people of Haneoo catching hinalea and went 
to Kumaka, a place where fresh water springs out from 
the sand and rocks near the surf of Puhele, at Hamoa, 
where lay a large, long stone in the sea. This stone 
he raised upright and also placed others about the 
water spring, and said to his friend : " To-day I 
name this stone Ku-a-lanakila, for I have triumphed 
over my enemies ; and I hereby declare that all fishes, 
crabs, and sea-moss shall return again in plenty through- 
out the seas of Hana, as in the days when my parents 
were living in the flesh at Lehoula." 

From the time Aiai raised this stone, up to the pres- 
ent generation, the story of Ku-ula and Aiai is well 
preserved, and people have flocked to the place where 
the stone stands to see it and verify the tradition. 
Some kahunas advise their suffering patients to pay a 
visit to the stone, Ku-lanakila, with some ofFerings for 
relief from their sickness and also to bathe in the spring 
of Kumaka and the surf of Puhele. This was a favor- 



ite spot of the kings and chiefs of the olden times for 
bathing and surf-riding, and is often referred to in the 
stories and legends of Hawaii-nei. This was the first 
stone raised by Aiai and established as a ku-ula at 
Hamoa ; and the old people of Hana attributed to its 
influence the return of the fish to their waters. 

After Aiai's practice of his father's instructions and 
the return of the fishes, his fame spread through- 
out the district, and the people made much of him 
during his stay with them. 

A great service wrought by Aiai during his boyhood 
was the teaching of his friend and his friend's parents 
how to make the various nets for all kinds of fishing. 
He also taught them to make the different kinds of 
fishing lines. When they were skilled in all these 
branches of knowledge pertaining to fishing, he called 
the people together, and in their presence declared his 
friend to be the head fisherman of Hana, with full 
control of all the stations (ko'a id) he had established. 
This wonder-working power second to none, possessed 
by Aiai, he now conferred on his friend, whereby his 
own name would be perpetuated and his fame estab- 
lished all over the land. 

The first ko'a ia (fishing ground, or station) where 
Aiai measured the depth of the sea is near Aleamai, 
his birthplace, and is called Kapukaulua, where he 
hooked and killed the eel Koona. It is a few miles 
from the shore to the southeast of the rocky islet 
called Alau. The second station he established was 
at a spot about a mile from Haneoo and Hamoa which 
was for the kala, palani, nanue, puhi, and ula. These 


varieties of fish are not caught by nets, or with the 
hook, but in baskets which are filled with bait and let 
down in the deep sea. 

The third station, which he named Koauli, was 
located out in the deep sea for the deep sea fishes, the 
depth ranging about two hundred fathoms. This is 
the ko'a that fishermen have to locate by certain shore 
bearings, lest a mistake be made as to the exact spot 
and the bottom be found rocky and the hooks entangle 
in the coral. In all the stations Aiai located there are 
no coral ledges where the fisherman's hook would 
catch, or the line be entangled ; and old Hawaiians 
commended the skill of such locations, believing that 
the success of Aiai's work was due to his father's 
influence as an ocean deity. 

At one time Aiai went over to the bay of Wananalua, 
the present port of Hana, with its noted hill of Kauiki 
and the sandy beach of Pueokahi. Here he made and 
placed a ku-ula, and also placed a fish stone in 
the cliff of Kauiki whereon is the ko'a known as 
Makakiloia. And the people of Hana give credit to 
this stone for the frequent appearance of the akule, 
oio, moi, and other fishes in their waters. 

Aiai's good work did not stop at this point; pro- 
ceeding to Honomaele he picked up three pebbles at 
the shore and, going into the sea, out beyond the 
breaking surf, he placed them there. In due time 
these three pebbles gathered others together and made 
a regular ridge ; and when this was accomplished, the 
aweoweo gathered from the far ocean to this ridge of 
pebbles for rest; whereupon the people came with net, 


hook, and line, and caught them as they desired. The 
writer witnessed this in 1845 with his own eyes. This 
ko'a for aweoweo is still there, but difficult to locate, 
from the fact that all the old residents are gone — either 
dead or moved away. 

He next went over to Waiohue, Koolau, where he 
placed a stone on a sharp rocky islet, called Paka, 
whereon a few puhala grow. It is claimed that during 
the season of the kala, they come in from the ocean, 
attracted to this locality by the power of this stone. 
They continue on to Mokumana, a cape between 
Keanae and Wailuanui. They come in gradually for 
two days, and on the third day of their reaching the 
coast, at the pali of Ohea, is the time and place to 
surround them with nets. In olden times while the 
fishermen were hauling in their nets full of kala into 
the canoes, the akule and oio also came in numbers at 
the same time, making it impossible to catch all in one 
day; and as there were so many gathered in the net it 
took them a day and a night before they could care for 
their draught, which yielded so many more than could 
be made use of that they were fed to the pigs and 
dogs. The kala of Ohea is noted for its fatness and 
fine flavor. Few people are now living there, and the 
people who knew all about this are dead ; but the stone 
that Aiai placed on that little island at Waiohue is still 

Aiai stayed there a few days and then returned to 
Hana and lived at his birthplace quite a length of time 
till he was a man grown. During this period he was 
teaching his art of fishing in all its forms ; and when 


he was satisfied the people were proficient, he prepared 
to visit other places for like service. But before leav- 
ing, Aiai told his friend to go and kill the big 
hee kupua (wonderful octopus) in the deep sea, right 
out of Wailuanui, Koolau, and he consented. 

When the canoes were made ready and drawn to the 
beach and the people came prepared to start, Aiai 
brought the hokeo (fishing gourd), where the leho (kauri 
shell) that Ku-ula his father gave him was kept, and 
gave it to his friend. This shell is called lehoula, and 
the locality at Hana of that name was called after it. 

Then the canoes and people sailed away till they got 
out along the palis near Kopiliula, where they rested. 
Aiai was not with the party, but overlooked their 
operations from the pali of Puhiai. While they rested, 
preparation for the lowering of the leho was being 
made, and when ready, Aiai's friend called on Ku-ula 
and Hina for the assistance of their wonderful powers. 
When he was through, he took off the covering of the 
gourd and took out the leho, which had rich beautiful 
colors like the rainbow, and attaching it to the line, he 
lowered it into the sea, where it sent out rays of a fiery 
light. The hee was so attracted by its radiance that 
it came out of its hole and with its great arms, which 
were as long and large as a full-grown cocoanut tree, 
came up to the surface of the water and stood there 
like a cocoanut grove. The' men were frightened, for 
it approached and went right into the canoes with the 
intention of destroying them and the men and captur- 
ing the leho ; but it failed, because Aiai's friend, with 
his skill and power, had provided himself with a stone, 


which, at the proper time, he shoved into the head of 
the squid ; and the weight of the stone drew it down 
to the bottom of the sea and kept it there, and being 
powerless to remove the stone, it died. The men 
seized and cut off one of the arms, which was so big 
that it loaded the canoes down so that they returned to 
Hana. When the squid died, it turned to stone. It 
is pointed out to-day just outside of Wailuanui, where 
a stone formation resembles the body of a squid and 
the arms, with one missing. 

When Aiai saw from the pali that his friend was 
successful in killing the hee, he returned to Hana 
unseen, and in a short while the canoes arrived with its 
arm, which was divided among the people according to 
the directions of Aiai. 

When Aiai saw that his friend and others of Hana 
were skilled in all the art of fishing, he decided to 
leave his birthplace and journey elsewhere. So he 
called a council of his friends and told them of his 
intended departure, to establish other fishing stations 
and instruct the people with all the knowledge thereof 
in conformity with the injunction of Ku-ula his father. 
They approved of the course contemplated and 
expressed their indebtedness to him for all the benefits 
he had shown them. 

On leaving Aleamai he took with him the fish-hook, 
manaiaakalaniy and the fish pearl, Kahuoi, for aku from 
the little cave where he had lodged on the hill of 
Kaiwiopele, and then disappeared in the mysterious 
manner of his parents. He established ku-ulas and 
ko'a aina, by placing three fish stones at various points 


as far as Kipahulu. At the streams of Kikoo and 
Maulili there stands a stone to-day, which was thrown 
by Aiai and dropped at a bend in the waters, unmoved 
by the many freshets that have swept the valleys since 
that time. 

Out in the sea of Maulili is a famous station known 
as Koanui. It is about a mile from the shore and 
marks the boundary of the sea of Maulili, and the fish 
that appear periodically and are caught within its 
limits have been subject to a division between the 
fishermen and the landowner ever since. This is a 
station where the fisherman's hook shall not return 
without a fish except the hook be lost, or the line cut. 

The first time that Aiai tested this station and 
caught a fish with his noted hook, he saw a fisherman 
in his canoe drifting idly, without success. When he 
saw Aiai, this fisherman, called Kanemakua, paddled 
till he came close to where Aiai was floating on an 
improvised canoe, a wiliwili log, without an outrigger, 
—which much surprised him. Before the fisherman 
reached him, Aiai felt a tug at his line and knew that he 
had caught a fish and began pulling it in. When 
Kanemakua came within speaking distance Aiai greeted 
him and gave him the fish, putting it into his canoe. 
Kanemakua was made happy and thanked Aiai for 
his generosity. While putting it in the canoe Aiai said : 

"This is the first time I have fished in these waters 
to locate (or found) this station, and as you are the 
first man I meet I give you the first fish caught. I 
also give you charge of this ko'a ; but take my advice. 
When you come here to fish and see a man meeting 


you in a canoe and floating alongside of you, if at that 
time you have caught a fish, then give it to him as I 
have done to you, without regret, and thus get a good 
name and be known as a generous man. If you 
observe this, great benefits will come to you and those 
related to you." 

As Aiai finished speaking he suddenly disappeared, 
and Kanemakua could hardly realize that he had not 
been dreaming but for the assurance he had in the 
great fish lying in his canoe. He returned to the 
shore with his prize, which was so large and heavy that 
it required the help of two others to carry it to the 
house, where it was cut up and the oven made hot for 
its baking. When it was cooked he took the eyes of 
the fish and offered them up as a thanksgiving sacrifice. 
Then the family, friends, and neighbors around came 
to the feast and ate freely. During all this time 
Kanemakua was thinking of the words spoken by 
the young man, which he duly observed. The first 
ku-ula established in Maulili, Maui, was named after 
him, and from that time its fish have been given 
out freely without restriction or division. 

After establishing the different ku-ula stations along 
the coast from Hana to Kipahulu, Aiai went to Kaupo 
and other places. A noted station and ku-ula is at 
Kahikinui. All the stations of this place are in the 
deep sea, where they use nets of three kinds ; there 
is also fishing with poles, and ulua fishing, because 
this part of the island faces the wind ; but the ku-ulas 
are located on the seashore, as is also the one at 
Honuaula, where it is covered over by the lava flow. 


Thus was performed the good work of Aiai 
in establishing ku-ula stations and fish stones all 
around the island of Maui. It is also said that he 
visited Kahoolawe and established a ku-ula at 
Hakioawa, though it differs from the others, being 
built on a high bluff" overlooking the sea, somewhat 
like a temple, by placing stones in the form of a 
square, in the middle of which was left a space wherein 
the fishermen of that island laid their first fish caught, 
as a thank offering. Awa and kapa were also placed 
there as offerings to the fish deities. 

An idea prevails with some people that the ko'a of 
Kamohoalii, the king shark of Kahoolawe, is on this 
island, but if all the stories told of it be examined 
there will be found no reference to a ko'a of his on 
this island. 

From Kahoolawe, Aiai next went to Lanai, where 
he started fishing for aku (bonito) at Cape Kaunolu, 
using his pearl Kahuoi. This is the first case known 
of fishing for aku with pearl from the land, as it is a 
well known fact that this fish is caught only in deep 
sea, far from shore. In the story of Kaneapua it is 
shown that he is the only one who had fished for aku 
at the Cape of Kaunolu, where it was started by Aiai. 

From Kaunolu, Aiai went to Kaena Cape, where at 
a place close to Paomai, was a little sandy beach now 
known as Polihua. Here he took a stone and carved 
a figure on it, then carried and placed it on the sandy 
beach, and called on his parents. While making his 
incantations the stone moved toward the sea and dis- 
appeared under the water. His incantations finished, 


the stone reappeared and moved toward him till it 
reached the place where it had been laid; whereupon it 
was transformed into a turtle, and gave the name of 
Polihua to that beach. This work of Aiai on the 
island of Lanai was the first introduction of the turtle 
in the seas of Hawaii, and also originated the habit of 
the turtle of going up the beach to lay its eggs, then 
returning to the sea. 

After making the circuit of Lanai he went over to 
Molokai, landing at Punakou and travelled along the 
shore till he reached Kaunakakai. At this place he 
saw spawns of mullet, called Puai-i, right near the 
shore, which he kicked with his foot, landing them on 
the sand. This practice of kicking fish with the feet 
is carried on to this time, but only at that locality. 
Aiai continued on along the Kona side of Molokai, 
examining its fishing grounds and establishing ku-ulas 
till he got to Halawa. At the Koolau side of the 
island he stopped at Wailau and saw the cave of the 
eel Koona that went to Hana and stole the fish from 
his father's pond, and the cause of all the trouble that 
befell his parents and himself. 

When Aiai landed at Wailau he saw that both sides 
of the valley- were covered with men, women, and 
children engaged in closing up the stream and divert- 
ing its water to another course, whereby they would 
be enabled to catch oopu and opae. The water being 
low, the gourds of some of the people were full from 
their catch. 

Aiai noticed their wanton method of fishing, where- 
by all oopus and opaes were caught without thought 


of any reservation for their propagation; therefore he 
called on his parents to take them all away. The 
prayer was granted, for suddenly they all disappeared; 
those in the water went up the stream to a place 
called Koki, while those in the gourds were turned to 
lizards which scampered out and ran all over the 
rocks. The people were much surprised at this change 
and felt sorely disappointed at the loss of their food 

On account of his regard for a certain lad of that 
place, named Kahiwa, he showed him the place of the 
opaes to be up the precipitous cliff, Koki. The youth 
was attentive to the direction of Aiai and going there 
he found the oopus and opaes as stated, as they are to 
this day. That is what established the noted saying 
of the old people of that land : "Kokio of Wailau is 
the ladder of the opae." It is also known as the 
"Pali of Kahiwa." 

When Aiai left Wailau he showed this lad the 
ku-ula and the fish station in the sea he had 
located there, at the same distance as that rocky 
island known as Mokapu. He went also to 
Pelekunu, Waikolu and Kalawao, even to Kalaupapa, 
the present home of the lepers. At the latter place 
he left a certain fish stone. That is the reason fish 
constantly gather there even to this day. He also 
went to Hoolehua and so on as far as Ka lae o ka ilio 
(the dog's forehead) and Ka lae o ka laau. Between 
these two capes in the sea is a station established by 
Aiai, where a tree grew out from under a rock, Ekaha 
by name. It is a hardwood tree, but the trunk and 


also the branches are without leaves. This place is a 
great haunt for fishermen with their hooks. 

Aiai then came to Oahu, first landing at Makapuu, 
in Koolau, where he founded a pohaku-ia (fish stone) 
for red fish and for speckled fish, and called it Malei. 
This was a female rock, and the fish of that place is 
the uhu. It is referred to in the mele of Hiiaka, thus: 

" I will not go to the stormy capes of Koolau, 
The sea-cliffs of Moeaau. 
The woman watching uhu of Makapuu 
Dwells on the ledge of Kamakani 
At Koolau. The living 
Offers grass-twined sacrifices, O Malie !" 

From the time Aiai founded that spawning-place 
until the present, its fish have been the uhu, extend- 
ing to Hanauma. There were also several gathering- 
places for fish established outside of Kawaihoa. Aiai 
next moved to Maunalua, then to Waialae and 
Kahalaia. At Kaalawai he placed a white and brown 
rock. There in that place is a hole filled with 
aholehole, therefore the name of the land is Kaluahole. 
Right outside of Kahuahui there is a station where 
Aiai placed a large round sandstone that is surrounded 
by spawning-places for fish; Ponahakeone is its name. 

In ancient times the chiefs selected a very secret 
place wherein to hide the dead bodies of their greatly 
beloved, lest some one should steal their bones to 
make fish-hooks, or arrows to shoot mice with. For 
that reason the ancients referred to Ponahakeone as 
"He Lualoa no Na'lii" — a deep pit for the chiefs. 


Aiai came to Kalia and so on to Kakaako. Here 
he was befriended by a man named Apua, with whom 
he remained several days, observing and listening to 
the murmurs of the chief named Kou. This chief 
was a skilful hiaku fisherman, his grounds being out- 
side of Mamala until you came to Moanalua. There 
was none so skilled as he, and generous withal, giving 
akus to the people throughout the district. 

As Aiai was dwelling with his friend Apua at 
Kakaako, he meandered off one day along the shore 
of Kulolia, and so on to Pakaka and Kapapoko. But he 
did not return to the house of his friend, for he met a 
young woman gathering limu (sea-moss) and fishing 
for crabs. This young woman, whose name was 
Puiwa, lived at Hanakaialama and was a virgin, never 
having had a husband. She herself, as the people 
would say, was forward to ask Aiai to be her husband; 
but he listened to her voice, and they went up 
together to her home and saw the parents and rela- 
tives, and forthwith were married. After living with 
this young woman some time a son was born to them, 
whom Aiai named Puniaiki. During those days was 
the distribution of aku which were sent up from 
Honolulu to the different dwellings; but while others 
were given a whole fish, they got but a portion from 
some neighbor. For this reason the woman was 
angry, and told Aiai to go to the brook and get some 
oopus fit to eat, as well as opae. Aiai listened to the 
voice of his wife. He dug a ditch and constructed a 
dam so as to lead the water of the brook into some 
pits, and thus be able to catch the oopu and opae. He 


labored some days at this work, and the fish and 
shrimps were hung up to dry. 

On a certain day following, Aiai and his wife went 
with their child to the brook. She left her son upon 
the bank of the stream while she engaged herself in 
catching opae and oopu from the pits. But it was not 
long before the child began to cry; and as he cried, 
Aiai told his wife to leave her fishing, but she talked 
saucily to him. So Aiai called upon the names of his 
ancestors. Immediately a dark and lowering cloud 
drew near and poured out a flood of water upon the 
stream, and in a short time the dam was broken by 
the freshet and all the oopu and opae, together with 
the child, were swept toward the sea. But the woman 
was not taken by the flood. Aiai then rose up and 
departed, without thought of his wife. 

He went down from the valley to Kaumakapili, and 
as he was standing there he saw some women fishing 
for oopu on the banks of the stream, the daughter of 
the chief Kikihale being with them. At that time, 
behold, there was caught by the female guardian of 
the daughter of Kikihale a very large oopu. This 
oopu she showed to her protegee, who told her to put 
it into a large calabash with water and feed it with limu, 
so that it might become a pet fish. This was done and 
the oopu was tended very carefully night and day. 

Aiai stood by and saw the fish lifted out of the 
brook, and recognized it at the same time as his own 
child, changed from a human being into an oopu. 

(At this point the story of Aiai gives place to that of 
his child.) 


When the oopu was placed in a large calabash with 
water, it was carefully tended and fed with sea-moss 
for some time, but one day in seeing to this duty 
the guardian of the chiefess, on reaching the cala- 
bash, was startled to behold therein a human child, 
looking with its eyes. And the water in the calabash 
had disappeared. She was greatly surprised and seized 
with a dark foreboding, and a trembling fear possessed 
her as she looked upon this miraculous child. 

This woman went and told the chiefess of this child 
they knew to have had the form of an oopu, and 
as Kikihale heard the story of her guardian she went 
quickly, with grave doubts, however, of this her 
report; but there, on reaching the calabash, as she 
looked she saw indeed a child therein. She immedi- 
ately put forth her hands toward the child and lifting 
it, carefully examined its form and noted its agreeable 
features. As the thought quickly possessed this girl, 
she said: "Now, my guardian, you and your husband 
take and rear this child till he is grown, then I will be 
his wife." 

The guardian answered her: "When this child 
becomes grown you will be old; that is, your days 
will be in the evening of life, while his place will be in 
the early morn. Will you not thereby have lasting 
cause for dissatisfaction and contention between you in 
the future?" 

Kikihale answering her guardian said: "You are 
not to blame; these things are mine to consider, for 
the reason that the desire is mine, not yours, my 


After this talking the child was quickly known of 
among the chiefs and attendants. He was nourished 
and brought up to adult age, when Kikihale took 
him for her husband as she had said; and for a time 
they dwelt together as man and wife without disagree- 
ment between them. But during these days Kikihale 
saw plainly that her husband was not disposed to do 
anything for their support; therefore she mourned 
over it continually and angrily reproved him, finally, 

"O my husband, can you not go forth also, as others, 
to assist our father and the attendants in the duties of 
fishing, instead of eating till you are satisfied, then 
rolling over with face upward to the ridge-pole of the 
house and counting the ahos? It may do while my 
father is alive; but if he should die, whence would 
come our support?" Thus she spoke reproachingly 
from day to day, and the words stung Puniaiki's heart 
with much pain. 

And this is what he said to his wife one day: "It 
is unpleasant to hear you constantly talking thus. 
Not as wild animals is the catching of fish in the sea; 
they are obedient if called, and you may eat wastefully 
of my fish when procured. I have authority over 
fish, men, pigs, and dogs. If you are a favorite 
of your father then go to him for double canoes, 
with their fishing appurtenances, and men to paddle 

When Kikihale heard these words of her husband 
she hastened to Kou, her father, and told him all that 
Piniaiki had said, and the request was promptly 


executed. Kikihale returned to her husband and told 
him all she had done. 

On Puniaiki's going down to the canoe place he 
found the men were making ready the canoes with the 
nets, rods, lines, and the pearl fish-hooks. Here he 
lit a fire and burned up the pearl fish-hooks, at which 
his wife was much angered and cried loudly for the 
hiaku pearl hooks of her father. She went and told 
Kou of this mischievous action of her husband, but 
he answered her not a word at this act of his son-in- 
law, though he had supplied five gourds filled with 
them, a thousand in number, and the strangest thing 
was, that all were burned up save two only which Kou 
had reserved. 

That night Puniaiki slept apart from his wife, and 
he told the canoe paddlers to sleep in the canoe sheds, 
not to go to their homes that night; and they obeyed 
his voice. 

It was Kou's habit to rouse his men before break 
of day to sail in the malaus for aku fishing at the 
mouth of the harbor, for that was their feeding-time, 
not after the sun had risen. Thus would the canoes 
enter the schools of aku and this chief became famous 
thereby as a most successful fisherman. But on this 
day was seen the sorcerer's work of this child of Aiai. 

As Kou with his men set out always before dawn, 
here was this Puniaiki above at his place at sunrise. 
At this time on his awaking from sleep he turned his 
face mountainward, and looking at Kaumakapili he 
saw a rainbow and its reddish mist spread out at that 
place, wherein was standing a human form. He felt 














conscious that it was Aiai his father, therefore he went 
there and Aiai showed him the place of the pa (fish- 
hook) called Kahuai, and he said to his son: "Here 
will I stay till you return; be quick." 

Upon Puniaiki reaching the landing the canoes were 
quickly made ready to depart, and as they reached 
Kapapoko and Pakaka, at the sea of Kuloloia, they 
went on to Ulukua, now the lighthouse location of 
Honolulu harbor. At this place Puniaiki asked the 
paddlers: "What is the name of that surf cresting 
beneath the prow of our canoes?" 

"Puuiki," replied the men. 

He then said to them: "Point straight the prow 
of the canoes and paddle with strength." At these 
words of Puniaiki their minds were in doubt, because 
there were probably no akus at that place in the surf; 
but that was none of their business. As they neared 
the breakers of Puuiki, below the mouth of Mamala, 
Puniaiki said to his men: "Turn the canoes around 
and go shorewards." And in returning he said quickly, 
"Paddle strong, for here we are on the top of a school 
of akus." But strange to say, as the men looked in 
the water they saw no fish swimming about, but on 
reaching Ulakua Puniaiki opened up the fish-hook, 
Kahuai, from its wrapping in the gourd and held it in 
his hand. 

At this the akus, unprecedented in number, fairly 
leaped into the canoes. They became so filled with 
the fish, without labor, that they sank in the water as 
they reached Kapuukolo, and the men jumped over- 
board to float them to the beach. The canoe men 


wondered greatly at this work of the son-in-law of 
Kou the chief; and the shore people shouted as the 
akus which filled the harbor swam toward the fish- 
pond of Kuwili and on to the mouth of Leleo stream. 

When the canoes touched shore Puniaiki seized 
two fishes in his hands and went to join his father 
where he was staying, and Aiai directed him to take 
them up to where his mother lived. These akus 
were not gifts for her, but an offering to Ku-ula at a 
ko'a established just above Kahuailanawai. Puniaiki 
obeyed the instructions of his father, and on returning 
to him he was sent back to his mother, Pukva, with a 
supply of akus. She was greatly surprised that this 
handsome young man, with his gift of akus for her to 
eat, was her own son, and these were the first fruits of 
his labor. 

The people marvelled at the quantity of fish 
throughout the harbor, so that even the stream at 
Kikihale was also full of akus, and Puniaiki com- 
manded the people to take of them day and night; 
and the news of this visit of akus wsnt all around 
Oahu. This unequalled haul of akus was a great 
humiliation to Kou, affecting his fame as a fisherman; 
but he was neither jealous of his son-in-law nor angry, 
— he just sat silent. He thought much on the sub- 
ject but with kindly feelings, resulting in turning over 
this employment to him who could prosecute it with- 
out worry. 

Shortly afterwards Aiai arranged with Puniaiki for 
the establishing of ku-ulas, ko'as, and fish stones 
around the island of Oahu, which were as follows: 


The Kou stone was for Honolulu and Kaumakapili; 
a ku-ula at Kupahu; a fish stone at Hanapouli, Ewa. 
Ahuena was the ku-ula for Waipio; two were assigned 
for Honouliuli. Hani-o was the name of the ko'a 
outside of Kalaeloa; Kua and Maunalahilahi for Waia- 
nae; Kamalino for Waimea; and Kaihukuuna for Laie- 
maloo, Koolau. 

Aiai and his son also visited Kauai and Niihau on 
this work, then they turned and went together to 
Hawaii. The principal or most noted fishing-grounds 
there are: Poo-a, Kahaka, and Olelomoana at Kona; 
Kalae at Kau; Kupakea at Puna, and I at Hilo. 

In former times at most of these fishing-grounds 
were seen multitudes and varieties of fish, all around 
the islands, and occasionally deep sea kinds came close 
in shore, but in this new era there are not so many. 
Some people say it is on account of the change of the 





| r ONG ago, when the Hawaiians were in the dark- 
*-** ness of superstition and kahunaism, with their 
gods and lords many, there lived at Mokuleia, 
Waialua, two old men whose business it was to pray 
to Kaneaukai for a plentiful supply of fish. These 
men were quite poor in worldly possessions, but 
given to the habit of drinking a potion of awa after 
their evening meal of poi and fish. 

The fish that frequented the waters of Mokuleia 
were the aweoweo, kala, manini, and many other 
varieties that find their habitat inside the coral reefs. 
Crabs of the white variety burrowed in the sand near 
the seashore and were dug out by the people, young 
and old. The squid also were speared by the skilful 
fishermen, - and were eaten stewed, or salted and sun- 
dried and roasted on the coals. The salt likely came 
from Kaena Point, from salt-water evaporation in the 
holes of rocks so plentiful on that stormy cape. Or 
it may have been made on the salt pans of Paukauwila, 
near the stream of that name, where a few years ago 
this industry existed on a small scale. 



But to return to our worshippers of Kaneaukai, 
One morning on going out upon the seashore they 
found a log of wood, somewhat resembling the human 
form, which they took home and set in a corner of 
their lowly hut, and continued their habit of praying 
to Kaneaukai. One evening, after having prepared a 
scanty supper of poi and salt, with perhaps a few 
roasted kukui-nuts, as a relish, and a couple of cocoa- 
nut cups of awa as their usual drink, they saw a 
handsome young man approaching, who entered their 
hut and saluted them. He introduced himself by 
saying, "I am Kaneaukai to whom you have been 
praying, and that which you have set up is my image ; 
you have done well in caring for it." 

He sat down, after the Hawaiian custom, as if to 
share their evening meal, which the two old men 
invited him to partake of with them, but regretted the 
scanty supply of awa. He said: "Pour the awa back 
into the bowl and divide into three." This they did 
and at once shared their meal with their guest. 

After supper Kaneaukai said to the two old men, 
"Go to Keawanui and you will get fish enough for the 
present." He then disappeared, and the fishermen 
went as instructed and obtained three fishes ; one they 
gave to an old sorceress who lived near by, and the 
other two they kept for themselves. 

Soon after this there was a large school of fish 
secured by the fishermen of Mokuleia. So abundant 
were the fish that after salting all they could, there 
was enough to give away to the neighbors ; and even 
the dogs had more than they desired. 


Leaving the Mokuleia people to the enjoyment of 
their unusual supply of fish, we will turn to the abode 
of two kahunas, who were also fishermen, living on 
the south side of Waimea Valley, Oahu. One morn- 
ing, being out offish, they went out into the harbor to 
try their luck, and casting their net they caught up a 
calcareous stone about as large as a man's head, and a 
pilot fish. They let the pilot fish go, and threw the 
stone back into the sea. Again they cast their net and 
again they caught the stone and the pilot fish ; and so 
again at the third haul. At this they concluded that 
the stone was a representative of some god. The 
elder of the two said : "Let us take this stone ashore 
and set it up as an idol, but the pilot fish we will let 
go." So they did, setting it up on the turn of the 
bluff on the south side of the harbor of Waimea. 
They built an inclosure about it and smoothed off the 
rocky bluff by putting flat stones from the immediate 
neighborhood about the stone idol thus strangely 

About ten days after the finding of the stone idol 
the two old kahunas were sitting by their grass hut in 
the dusk of the evening, bewailing the scarcity of fish, 
when Kaneaukai himself appeared before them in the 
guise of a young man. He told them that they had 
done well in setting up his stone image, and if they 
would follow his directions they would have a plentiful 
supply offish. Said he, "Go to Mokuleia, and you 
will find my wooden idol ; bring it here and set it up 
alongside of my stone idol." But they demurred, as 
it was a dark night and there were usually quicksands 


after a freshet in the Kamananui River. His answer 
was, "Send your grandsons." And so the two young 
men were sent to get the wooden idol and were told 
where they could find it. 

The young men started for Mokuleia by way of 
Kaika, near the place where salt was made a few years 
ago. Being strangers, they were in doubt about the 
true way, when a meteor {hoku kaolele) appeared and 
went before them, showing them how to escape the 
quicksands. After crossing the river they went on to 
Mokuleia as directed by Kaneaukai, and found the 
wooden idol in the hut of the two old men. They 
shouldered it, and taking as much dried fish as they 
could carry, returned by the same way that they had 
come, arriving at home about midnight. 

The next day the two old kahunas set up the 
wooden idol in the same inclosure with the stone rep- 
resentative of Kaneaukai. The wooden image has 
long since disappeared, having been destroyed, prob- 
ably, at the time Kaahumanu made a tour of Oahu 
after her conversion to Christianity, when she issued 
her edict to burn all the idols. But the stone idol 
was not destroyed. Even during the past sixty years 
offerings of roast pigs are known to have been placed 
before it. This was done secretly for fear of the 
chiefs, who had published laws against idolatry. 

Accounts differ, various narrators giving the story 
some embellishments of their own. So good a man 
as a deacon of Waialua in telling the above seemed to 
believe that, instead of being a legend it was true; for 
an old man, to whom he referred as authority, said 


that one of the young men who went to Mokuleia and 
brought the wooden idol to Waimea was his own 

An aged resident of the locality gives this version: 
Following the placement of their strangely found stone 
these two men dreamed of Kaneaukai as a god in some 
far-distant land, to whom they petitioned that he would 
crown their labors with success by granting them a 
plentiful supply of fish. Dreaming thus, Kaneaukai 
revealed himself to them as being already at their 
shore; that the stone which they had been permitted 
to find and had honored by setting up at Kehauapuu, 
was himself, in response to their petitions; and since 
they had been faithful so far, upon continuance of the 
same, and offerings thereto, they should ever after be 
successful in their fishing. As if in confirmation of 
this covenant, this locality has ever since been noted 
for the periodical visits of schools of the anae-holo and 
kala, which are prevalent from April to July, coming, 
it is said, from Ohea, Honuaula, Maui, by way of 
Kahuku, and returning the same way. 

So strong was the superstitious belief of the people 
in this deified stone that when, some twenty years 
ago, the road supervisor of the district threw it over 
and broke off a portion, it was prophesied that Kan- 
eaukai would be avenged for the insult. And when 
shortly afterward the supervisor lost his position and 
removed from the district, returning not to the day of 
his death; and since several of his relatives have met 
untimely ends, not a few felt it was the recompense of 
his sacrilegious act. 




TXAMOHOALII, the King-shark of Hawaii and 
■*•*• Maui, has several deep sea caves that he uses in 
turn as his habitat. There are several of these at the 
bottom of the palisades, extending from Waipio toward 
Kohala, on the island of Hawaii. A favorite one was 
at Koamano, on the mainland, and another was at 
Maiaukiu, the small islet just abreast of the valley of 
Waipio. It was the belief of the ancient Hawaiians 
that several of these shark gods could assume any 
shape they chose, the human form even, when occa- 
sion demanded. 

In the reign of Umi, a beautiful girl, called Kalei, 
living in Waipio, was very fond of shellfish, and 
frequently went to Kuiopihi for her favorite article of 
diet. She generally went in the company of other 
women, but if the sea was a little rough, and her usual 
companion was afraid to venture out on the wild and 
dangerous beach, she very often went alone rather than 
go without her favorite sea-shells. 

In those days the Waipio River emptied over a low 
fall into a basin partly open to the sea; this basin is 
now completely filled up with rocks from some con- 


vulsion of nature, which has happened since then. In 
this was a deep pool, a favorite bathing-place for all 
Waipio. The King shark god, Kamohoalii, used to 
visit this pool very often to sport in the fresh waters 
of the Waipio River. Taking into account the many 
different tales told of the doings of this shark god, he 
must have had quite an eye for human physical beauty. 

Kalei, as was to be expected from a strong, well- 
formed Hawaiian girl of those days, was an expert 
swimmer, a good diver, and noted for the neatness and 
grace with which she would lelekawa (jump from the 
rocks into deep water) without any splashing of water, 
which would happen to unskilful divers, from the 
awkward attitudes they would assume in the act of 

It seems Kamohoalii, the King-shark, had noted 
the charms of the beautiful Kalei, and his heart, or 
whatever answers in place of it with fishes, had been 
captured by them. But he could not expect to make 
much of an impression on the maiden's susceptibilities 
in propria persona^ even though he was perfectly able 
to take her bodily into his capacious maw; so he must 
needs go courting in a more pleasing way. Assuming 
the form of a very handsome man, he walked on the 
beach one rather rough morning, waiting for the girl's 

Now the very wildness of the elements afforded him 
the chance he desired, as, though Kalei was counted 
among the most agile and quick of rock-fishers, that 
morning, when she did come, and alone, as her usual 
companions were deterred by the rough weather, she 


made several unsuccessful springs to escape a high 
threatening wave raised by the god himself; and 
apparently, if it had not been for the prompt and 
effective assistance rendered by the handsome stranger, 
she would have been swept out into the sea. 

Thus an acquaintance was established. Kalei met 
the stranger from time to time, and finally became his 

Some little time before she expected to become a 
mother, her husband, who all this time would only 
come home at night, told her his true nature, and 
informing her that he would have to leave her, gave 
orders in regard to the bringing up of the future child. 
He particularly cautioned the mother never to let him 
be fed on animal flesh of any kind, as he would be 
born with a dual nature, and with a body that he could 
change at will. 

In time Kalei was delivered of a fine healthy boy, 
apparently the same as any other child, but he had, 
besides the normal mouth of a human being, a shark's 
mouth on his back between the shoulder blades. 
Kalei had told her family of the kind of being her 
husband was, and they all agreed to keep the matter 
of the shark-mouth on the child's back a secret, as 
there was no knowing what fears and jealousies might 
be excited in the minds of the King or high chiefs by 
such an abnormal being, and the babe might be killed. 

The old grandfather, far from heeding the warning 
given by Kamohoalii in the matter of animal diet, as 
soon as the boy, who was called Nanaue, was old 
enough to come under the taboo in regard to the eat- 


ing of males, and had to take his meals at the mua 
house with the men of the family, took especial pains 
to feed him on dog meat and pork. He had a hope 
that his grandson would grow up to be a great, strong 
man, and become a famous warrior; and there was no 
knowing what possibilities lay before a strong, skilful 
warrior in those days. So he fed the boy with meat, 
whenever it was obtainable. The boy thrived, grew 
strong, big, and handsome as a young lama {Maba 
sandwicensis) tree. 

There was another pool with a small fall of the 
Waipio River very near the house of Kalei, and the 
boy very often went into it while his mother watched 
on the banks. Whenever he got into the water he 
would take the form of a shark and would chase and 
eat the small fish which abounded in the pool. As he 
grew old enough to understand, his mother took 
especial pains to impress on him the necessity of con- 
cealing his shark nature from other people. 

This place was also another favorite bathing-place 
of the people, but Nanaue, contrary to all the habits 
of a genuine Hawaiian, would never go in bathing 
with the others, but always alone; and when his 
mother was able, she used to go with him and sit on 
the banks, holding the kapa scarf, which he always 
wore to hide the shark-mouth on his back. 

When he became a man, his appetite for animal 
diet, indulged in childhood, had grown so strong that 
a human being's ordinary allowance would not suffice 
for him. The old grandfather had died in the mean- 
time, so that he was dependent on the food supplied 


by his stepfather and uncles, and they had to expostu- 
late with him on what they called his shark-like 
voracity. This gave rise to the common native nick- 
name of a manohae (ravenous shark) for a very glut- 
tonous man, especially in the matter of meat. 

Nanaue used to spend a good deal of his time in 
the two pools, the one inland and the other opening 
into the sea. The busy-bodies (they had some in 
those days as well as now) were set to wondering why 
he always kept a kihei, or mantle, on his shoulders; 
and for such a handsomely shaped, athletic young man, 
it was indeed a matter of wonder and speculation, con- 
sidering the usual attire of the youth of those days. 
He also kept aloof from all the games and pastimes 
of the young people, for fear that the wind or some 
active movement might displace the kapa mantle, and 
the shark-mouth be exposed to view. 

About this time children and eventually grown-up 
people began to disappear mysteriously. 

Nanaue had one good quality that seemed to redeem 
his apparent unsociability ; he was almost always to be 
seen working in his mother's taro or potato patch 
when not fishing or bathing. People going to the sea 
beach would have to pass these potato or taro patches, 
and it was Nanaue's habit to accost them with the 
query of where they were going. If they answered, 
"To bathe in the sea," or, "Fishing," he would 
answer, "Take care, or you may disappear head and 
tail." Whenever he so accosted any one it would not 
be long before some member of the party so addressed 
would be bitten by a shark. 


If it should be a man or woman going to the beach 
alone, that person would never be seen again, as the 
shark-man would immediately follow, and watching for 
a favorable opportunity, jump into the sea. Having 
previously marked the whereabouts of the person he 
was after, it was an easy thing for him to approach 
quite close, and changing into a shark, rush on the 
unsuspecting person and drag him or her down into 
the deep, where he would devour his victim at his 
leisure. This was the danger to humanity which his 
king-father foresaw when he cautioned the mother of 
the unborn child about feeding him on animal flesh, as 
thereby an appetite would be evoked which they had 
no means of satisfying, and a human being would 
furnish the most handy meal of the kind that he 
would desire. 

Nanaue had been a man grown some time, when an 
order was promulgated by Umi, King of Hawaii, for 
every man dwelling in Waipio to go to koele work, 
tilling a large plantation for the King. There were to 
be certain days in an anahulu (ten days) to be set aside 
for this work, when every man, woman, and child had 
to go and render service, excepting the very old and 
decrepit, and children in arms. 

The first day every one went but Nanaue. He kept 
on working in his mother's vegetable garden to the 
astonishment of all who saw him. This was reported 
to the King, and several stalwart men were sent after 
him. When brought before the King he still wore his 
kapa kihei, or mantle. 

The King asked him why he was not doing koele 


work with every one else. Nanaue answered he did 
not know it was required of him. Umi could not 
help admiring the bold, free bearing of the handsome 
man, and noting his splendid physique, thought he 
would make a good warrior, greatly wanted in those 
ages, and more especially in the reign of Umi, and 
simply ordered him to go to work. 

Nanaue obeyed, and took his place in the field with 
the others, and proved himself a good worker, but 
still kept on his kihei, which it would be natural to 
suppose that he would lay aside as an incumbrance 
when engaged in hard labor. At last some of the 
more venturesome of the younger folks managed 
to tear his kapa off, as if accidentally, when the 
shark-mouth on his back was seen by all the people 

Nanaue was so enraged at the displacement of his 
kapa and his consequent exposure, that he turned and 
bit several of the crowd, while the shark-mouth 
opened and shut with a snap, and a clicking sound 
was heard such as a shark is supposed to make when 
baulked by its prey. 

The news of the shark-mouth and his characteristic 
shark-like actions were quickly reported to the King, 
with the fact of the disappearance of so many people 
in the vicinity of the pools frequented by Nanaue ; and 
of his pretended warnings to people going to the sea, 
which were immediately followed by a shark bite or by 
their being eaten bodily, with every one's surmise and 
belief that this man was at the bottom of all those 
disappearances. The King believed it was even so, 


and ordered a large fire to be lighted, and Nanaue to 
be thrown in to be burnt alive. 

When Nanaue saw what was before him, he called 
on the shark god, his father, to help him; then, seem- 
ing to be endowed with superhuman strength in answer 
to his prayer, he burst the ropes with which he had 
been bound in preparation for the burning, and break- 
ing through the throng of Umi's warriors, who 
attempted to detain him, he ran, followed by the 
whole multitude, toward the pool that emptied into 
the sea. When he got to the edge of the rocks bor- 
dering the pool, he waited till the foremost persons 
were within arm's length, when he leaped into the 
water and immediately turned into a large shark on 
the surface of the water, in plain view of the people 
who had arrived, and whose numbers were being con- 
tinually augmented by more and more arrivals. 

He lay on the surface some little time, as if to 
recover his breath, and then turned over on his back, 
and raising his head partly out of the water, snapped 
his teeth at the crowd who, by this time, completely 
lined the banks, and then, as if in derision or defiance 
of them, turned and flirted his tail at them and swam 
out to sea. 

The people and chiefs were for killing his mother 
and relatives for having brought up such a monster. 
Kalei and her brothers were seized, bound, and dragged 
before Umi, while the people clamored for their 
immediate execution, or as some suggested, that they 
be thrown into the fire lighted for Nanaue. 

But Umi was a wise king and would not consent to 



any such summary proceedings, but questioned Kalei 
in regard to her fearful offspring. The grieved and 
frightened mother told everything in connection with 
the paternity and bringing up of the child, and with 
the warning given by the dread sea-father. 

Umi considered that the great sea god Kamohoalii 
was on the whole a beneficent as well as a powerful 
one. Should the relatives and mother of that shark 
god's son be killed, there would then be no possible 
means of checking the ravages of that son, who might 
linger around the coast and creeks of the island, taking 
on human shape at will, for the purpose of travelling 
inland to any place he liked, and then reassume his 
fish form and lie in wait in the many deep pools 
formed by the streams and springs. 

Umi, therefore, ordered Kalei and her relatives to 
be set at liberty, while the priests and shark kahunas 
were requested to make offerings and invocations to 
Kamohoalii that his spirit might take possession of 
one of his hakas (mediums devoted to his cult), and 
so express to humanity his desires in regard to his bad 
son, who had presumed to eat human beings, a practice 
well known to be contrary to Kamohoalii's design. 

This was done, whereupon the shark god manifested 
himself through a haka, and expressed his grief at the 
action of his wayward son. He told them that the 
grandfather was to blame for feeding him on animal 
flesh contrary to his orders, and if it were not for that 
extenuating circumstance, he would order his son to 
be killed by his own shark officers ; but as it was, he 
would require of him that he should disappear forever 


from the shores of Hawaii. Should Nanaue disregard 
that order and be seen by any of his father's shark 
soldiers, he was to be instantly killed. 

Then the shark god, who it seems retained an 
affection for his human wife, exacted a promise that she 
and her relatives were to be forever free from any 
persecutions on account of her unnatural son, on pain 
of the return and freedom from the taboo of that son. 

Accordingly Nanaue left the island of Hawaii, 
crossed over to Maui, and landing at Kipahulu, 
resumed his human shape and went inland. He was 
seen by the people, and when questioned, told them 
he was a traveller from Hawaii, who had landed at 
Hana and was going around sightseeing. He was so 
good looking, pleasant, and beguiling in his conversa- 
tion that people generally liked him. He was taken 
as aikane by one of the petty chiefs of the place, who 
gave his own sister for wife to Nanaue. The latter 
made a stipulation that his sleeping house should be 
separated from that of his wife, on account of a 
pretended vow, but really in order that his peculiar 
second mouth might escape detection. 

For a while the charms of the pretty girl who had 
become his wife seem to have been sufficient to 
prevent him from trying to eat human beings, but 
after a while, when the novelty of his position as a 
husband had worn off, and the desire for human flesh 
had again become very strong, he resumed the old 
practice for which he had been driven away from 

He was eventually detected in the very act of push- 


ing a girl into the sea, jumping in after her, then 
turning into a shark, and commencing to devour her, 
to the horror of some people who were fishing with 
hook and rod from some rocks where he had not 
observed them. These people raised the alarm, and 1 
Nanaue seeing that he was discovered, left for 
Molokai where he was not known. 

He took up his residence on Molokai at Poniuohua, 
adjoining the ahupuaa of Kainalu, and it was not very 
long before he was at his old practice of observing and 
accosting people, giving them his peculiar warning, 
following them to the sea in his human shape, then 
seizing one of them as a shark and pulling the unfor- 
tunate one to the bottom, where he would devour his 
victim. In the excitement of such an occurrence, 
people would fail to notice his absence until he would 
reappear at some distant point far away from the 
throng, as if engaged in shrimping or crabbing. 

This went on for some time, till the frightened and 
harassed people in desperation went to consult a shark 
kahuna, as the ravages of the man-eating shark had 
put a practical taboo on ail kinds of fishing. It was 
not safe to be anywhere near the sea, even in the 
shallowest water. 

The kahuna told them to lie in wait for Nanaue, 
and the next time he prophesied that a person would 
be eaten head and tail, to have some strong men seize 
him and pull off" his kapa mantle, when a shark mouth 
would be found on his back. This was done, and the 
mouth seen, but the shark-man was so strong when 
they seized him and attempted to bind him, that he 


broke away from them several times. He was finally 
overpowered near the seashore and tightly bound. All 
the people then turned their attention to gathering 
brush and firewood to burn him, for it was well known 
that it is only by being totally consumed by fire that 
a man-shark can be thoroughly destroyed, and 
prevented from taking possession of the body of some 
harmless fish shark, who would then be incited to do 
all the pernicious acts of a man-shark. 

While he lay there on the low sandy beach, the tide 
was coming in, and as most of the people were return- 
ing with fagots and brush, Nanaue made a supreme 
effort and rolled over so that his feet touched the 
water, when he was enabled at once to change into a 
monster shark. Those who were near him saw it, but 
were not disposed to let him off so easily, and they ran 
several rows of netting makai, the water being very 
shallow for quite a distance out. The shark's flippers 
were all bound by the ropes with which the man 
Nanaue had been bound, and this with the shallowness 
of the water prevented him from exerting his great 
strength to advantage. He did succeed in struggling 
to the breakers, though momentarily growing weaker 
from loss of blood, as the people were striking at him 
with clubs, spears, stone adzes and anything that 
would hurt or wound, so as to prevent his escape. 

With all that, he would have got clear, if the people 
had not called to their aid the demigod Unauna, who 
lived in the mountains of upper Kainalu. It was then 
a case of Akua vs. Akua, but Unauna was only a 
young demigod, and not supposed to have acquired 


his full strength and supernatural powers, while 
Nanaue was a full-grown man and shark. If it had 
not been for the latter's being hampered by the cords 
with which he was bound, the nets in his way, as well 
as the loss of blood, it is fully believed that he would 
have got the better of the young local presiding deity ; 
but he was finally conquered and hauled up on the hill 
slopes of Kainalu to be burnt. 

The shallow ravine left by the passage of his 
immense body over the light yielding soil of the 
Kainalu Hill slope can be seen to this day, as also a 
ring or deep groove completely around the top of a 
tall insulated rock very near the top of Kainalu Hill, 
around which Unauna had thrown the rope, to assist 
him in hauling the big shark uphill. The place was 
ever afterwards called Puumano (Shark Hill), and is 
so known to this day. 

Nanaue was so large, that in the attempt to burn 
him, the blood and water oozing out of his burning 
body put out the fire several times. Not to be out- 
witted in that way by the shark son of Kamohoalii, 
Unauna ordered the people to cut and bring for the 
purpose of splitting into knives, bamboos from the 
sacred grove of Kainalu. The shark flesh was then 
cut into strips, partly dried, and then burnt, but the 
whole bamboo grove had to be used before the big 
shark was all cut. The god Mohoalii (another form 
of the name of the god Kamohoalii), father of Unauna, 
was so angered by the desecration of the grove, or more 
likely on account of the use to which it was put, that 
he took away all the edge and sharpness from the 


bamboos of this grove forever, and to this day they 
are different from the bamboos of any other place or 
grove on the islands, in this particular, that a piece of 
them cannot cut any more than any piece of common 




^pHE following narration of the different fishes 
here given is told and largely believed in by 
native fishermen. All may not agree as to particulars 
in this version, but the main features are well known 
and vary but little. Some of these stories are termed 
mythical, in others the truth is never questioned, and 
together they have a deep hold on the Hawaiian mind. 
Further and confirmatory information may be obtained 
from fishermen and others, and by visiting the market 
the varieties here mentioned may be seen almost daily. 
In the olden time certain varieties of fish were 
tabooed and could not be caught at all times, being 
subject to the kapu of Ku-ula, the fish god, who 
propagated the finny tribes of Hawaiian waters. 
While deep sea fishing was more general, that in the 
shallow sea, or along shore, was subject to the restric- 
tions of the konohiki of the land, and aliis, both as to 
certain kinds and periods. The sign of the shallow 
sea kapu was the placing of branches of the hau tree 
all along the shore. The people seeing this token of 
the kapu respected it, and any violation thereof in 
ancient times was said to be punishable by death. 



While this kapu prevailed the people resorted to the 
deep sea stations for their food supply. With the 
removal of the hau branches, indicating that the kapu 
was lifted, the people fished as they desired, subject 
only to the makahiki taboo days of the priest or alii, 
when no canoes were allowed to go out upon the water. 
The first fish caught by a fisherman, or any one 
else, was marked and dedicated to Ku-ula. After this 
offering was made, Ku-ula's right therein being thus 
recognized, they were free from further oblations so far 
as that particular variety of fish was concerned. All 
fishermen, from Hawaii to Niihau, observed this 
custom religiously. When the fishermen caught a 
large supply, whether by the net, hook, or shell, but 
one of a kind, as just stated, was reserved as an offer- 
ing to Ku-ula; the remainder was then free to the people. 

Some of the varieties of fish we now eat were deified 
and prayed to by the people of the olden time, and even 
some Hawaiians of to-day labor under like superstition 
with regard to sharks, eels, oopus, and some others. 
They are afraid to eat or touch these lest they suffer in 
consequence; and this belief has been perpetuated, 
handed down from parents to children, even to the 
present day. The writer was one of those brought up 
to this belief, and only lately has eaten the kapu fish 
of his ancestors without fearing a penalty therefor. 

The anae-holo is a species of mullet unlike the 
shallow water, or pond, variety; and the following 


story of its habit is well known to any kupa (native 
born) of Oahu. 

The home of the anae-holo is at Honouliuli, Pearl 
Harbor, at a place called Ihuopalaai. They make 
periodical journeys around to the opposite side of the 
island, starting from Puuloa and going to windward, 
passing successively Kumumanu, Kalihi, Kou, Kalia, 
Waikiki, Kaalawai and so on, around to the Koolau 
side, ending at Laie, and then returning by the same 
course to their starting-point. This fish is not caught 
at Waianae, Kaena, Waialua, Waimea, or Kahuku 
because it does not run that way, though these places 
are well supplied with other kinds. The reason given 
for this is as follows: 

Ihuopalaai had a Ku-ula, and this fish god supplied 
anaes. Ihuopalaai's sister took a husband and went 
and lived with him at Laie, Koolauloa. In course of 
time a day came when there was no fish to be had. In 
her distress and desire for some she bethought herself 
of her brother, so she sent her husband to Honouliuli 
to ask Ihuopalaai for a supply, saying: "Go to 
Ihuopalaai, my brother, and ask him for fish. If he 
offers you dried fish, refuse it by all means; — do not 
take it, because the distance is so long that you would 
not be able to carry enough to last us for any length 
of time." 

When her husband arrived at Honouliuli he went 
to Ihuopalaai and asked him for fish. His brother-in- 
law gave him several large bundles of dried fish, one 
of which he could not very well lift, let alone carry a 
distance. This offer was refused and reply given 


according to instruction. Ihuopalaai sat thinking for 
some time and then told him to return home, saying: 
"You take the road on the Kona side of the island; 
do not sit, stay, nor sleep on the way till you reach 
your own house." 

The man started as directed, and Ihuopalaai asked 
Ku-ula to send fish for his sister, and while the man 
was journeying homeward as directed a school of fish 
was following in the sea, within the breakers. He did 
not obey fully the words of Ihuopalaai, for he became 
so tired that he sat down on the way; but he noticed 
that whenever he did so the fish rested too. The 
people seeing the school of fish went and caught some 
of them. Of course, not knowing that this was his 
supply, he did not realize that the people were taking 
his fish. Reaching home, he met his wife and told her 
he had brought no fish, but had seen many all the 
way, and pointed out to her the school of anae-holo 
which was then resting abreast of their house. She 
told him it was their supply, sent by Ihuopalaai, his 
brother-in-law. They fished, and got all they desired, 
whereupon the remainder returned by the same way 
till they reached Honouliuli where Ihuopalaai was liv- 
ing. Ever afterward this variety offish has come and 
gone the same way every year to this day, commencing 
some time in October and ending in March or April. 

Expectant mothers are not allowed to eat of the 
anae-holo, nor the aholehole, fearing dire consequences 
to the child, hence they never touch them till after the 
eventful day. Nor are these fish ever given to children 
till they are able to pick and eat them of their own accord. 



The hilu is said to have once possessed a human 
form, but by some strange event its body was changed 
to that of a fish. No knowledge of its ancestry or 
place of origin is given, but the story is as follows: 

Hilu-ula and Hilu-uli were born twins, one a male 
and the other a female. They had human form, but 
with power to assume that of the fish now known as 
hilu. The two children grew up together and in due 
time when Hilu-uli, the sister, was grown up, she left 
her brother and parents without saying a word and 
went into the sea, and, assuming her fish form, set out 
on a journey, eventually reaching Heeia, Koolaupoko. 
During the time of her journey she increased the num- 
bers of the hilu so that by the time they came close to 
Heeia there was so large a school that the sea was red 
with them. When the people of Heeia and Kaneohe 
saw this, they paddled out in their canoes to discover 
that it was a fish they had never seen nor heard of 
before. Returning to the shore for nets, they sur- 
rounded the school and drew in so many that they 
were not able to care for them in their canoes. The 
fishes multiplied so rapidly that when the first school 
was surrounded and dragged ashore, another one 
appeared, and so on, till the people were surfeited. 
Yet the fish stayed in the locality, circling around. 
The people ate of them in all styles known to 
Hawaiians; raw, lawalued, salted, and broiled over a 
fire of coals. 

While the Koolau people were thus fishing and 


feasting, Hilu-ula, the brother, arrived among them in 
his human form; and when he saw the hilu-uli broiling 
over the coal fire he recognized the fish form of his 
sister. This so angered him that he assumed the form 
of a whirlwind and entered every house where they had 
hilu and blew the fish all back into the sea. Since 
then the hilu-uli has dark scales, and is well known all 
over the islands. 

The hou lives in shallow water. When fishing with 
torches on a quiet, still night, if one gets close to 
where it is sleeping it will be heard to snore as if it 
were a human being. This is a small, beautifully 
colored fish. Certain sharks also, sleeping in shallow 
water, can be heard at times indulging in the same 

There are many kinds of fish known to these 
islands, and other stories connected with them, which, 
if gathered together, would make an interesting collec- 
tion of yarns as "fishy" as any country can produce. 





aaho, sticks for thatching, p. 142. 

ahaaina, feast, p. 150. 

aheahea, an edible plant, p. 135. 

aholehole, a species of fish. 

ahos, small sticks used in thatch- 
ing, p. 245. 

Ahu Kakaalaneo, the name given 
to the original feather cloak, 

P- 155- 

ahupuaa, a small division of a 
country under the care of a 
head man. 

ahuula, a feather cloak, p. 155. 

Ai Kanaka, man eater, p. 191. 

aikane, an intimate friend of the 
same sex, p. 264. 

Aina-i ka-kaupo-o-Kane (the land in 
the heart of Kane), the prime- 
val home of mankind, p. 17. 

Aina kumupuaa a Kane, see Kan- 

Aina lauena a Kane, p. 24 

Aina-wai-akua-a-Kane (the land 
of the divine water of Kane), 
the primeval home of man- 
kind, p. 17. 

aipuupuu, chief cook or steward, 
p. 141. 

akaaka, laughter, p. 118. 

aku, a species of fish, the bonito. 

akua, a deity, p. 184. 


akule, a species of fish. 

ala, a smooth, round stone. 

alae, mud-hens, p. 33. 

alaea, red earth, of which the 

body of the first man was 

made, p. 16. 
Alehe-ka-la, sun snarer, p. 32. 
alii, chief. 

Alii aimoku, sovereign of the land. 
aloha, a word betokening greeting 

or farewell. 
Aloha ino oe, eia ihonei paha oe e 

make ai, ke ai mainei Pele, 

Compassion great to you! 

Close here, perhaps, is your 

death; Pele comes devouring, 

p. 40. 
Aloha oe! Alas for you! p. 41. 
anaana, prayer of a Kahuna to 

accomplish one's death, p. 169. 
anae-holo, a species of fish, p. 270. 
anahulu, a period of ten days. 
Ana puhi, eel's cave, p. 188. 
ano akua nae, but godlike, p. 51. 
Aole! no! p. 40. 
ao poko, short cloud, p. 207. 
apapani (or apapane), a scarlet bird, 

p. 182. 
a-pe, a plant having broad leaves of 

an acrid taste, like kalo, but 






auki, the ki leaf {Dracaena termin- 
alis), p. 119. 

Aumakua, ancestral shades, p. 93; 
god, p. 220. 

aupehu, famine swollen, p. 220. 

auwai, watercourse, p. no. 

Auwe ka make! alas, he is dead! p. 

awa, the name of a plant of a bitter, 
acrid taste, from which an 
intoxicating drink is made; also 
the name of the liquor itself, 
expressed from the root of the 
plant. {Piper methysticum). 

aweoweo, a species of reddish fish. 

Eia Hana la he aina aupehu; 
Hana keia i ka ia iki; ka ia 
Kama; ka ia Lanakila, p. 220. 

Elepaio, a small green bird {Cha- 
siempis sandwichensis), p. 125. 

ha, the lower stem of leaves when 
cut from the root, p. 114. 

haawe, back-load, p. 126. 

haka, a medium devoted to the cult 
of a god, p. 263. 

hala, tree {Pandanus odoratissimus), 
p. 121. 

halau, shed, p. 113. 

hau, a forest tree — a species of 

he ekolu ula ka la, the third bright- 
ness of the sun, p. 204. 

hee kupua, wonderful octopus, p. 

heiau, temple. 


he keehina honua a Kane, p. 15. 

he'lii kahuli, a fallen chief, p. 19. 

He Lualoa no Na'lii, a deep pit for 
the chiefs, p. 241. 

he mau anahulu, several ten day 

He po hookahi, a ao ua pau, in one 
night, and by dawn it is fin- 
ished, p. 109. 

He waa halau Alii ka Moku, the 
royal vessel, the ark, p. 20. 

hiaku, name of a place in the sea 
beyond the kaiuli, and inside 
the kohola, p. 242. 

Hi-ka-po-loa, a name for the god- 
head, p. 15. 

Hilo, the first day (of the new 
moon), p. 75. 

hilu, a species of fish, spotted with 
various colors, p. 273. 

hinahina, leaves of a gray or with- 
ered appearance, p. 98. 

hinalea, a species of wrasse-fish. 

hokeo, a fisherman's gourd. 

hoku kaolele, a meteor, p. 253. 

holua, sled. 

honu, sea turtle, p. 183. 

hou, a species of fish, p. 274. 

hula, a dance. 

ieie, a decorative vine. {Freyoinetia 

iiivi, a small red bird. 
i ka muli Hea at the rear of Hea, 

p. 24. 
Ikiki, a summer month — July or 

August, p. 74. 
i kini akua, spirits, angels. 




Ikua, a winter month — December 

or January, p. 74. 
i kuhaia, from spittle, p. 18. 
Halo loa i ka po, deep down into 

darkness, p. 18. 
Hi hau, the bark of the hau tree 

from which ropes are made, 

p. 218. 
ilio, dog. 

i mea ole, as nothing. 
imu, oven. 
iwi kuamoo, the backbone. 

ka aina i ka haupo a Kane, p. 24. 
ka aina momona a Kane, the fruitful 

land of Kane, p. 24. 
kaao, legend, p. 108. 
ka holua ana Kahawali, Kahawali's 

sliding-place, p. 39. 
kahu, keeper, p. 188. 
Kahunas, priests, p. 203. 
kahuna lapaau, medical priest, p. 53. 
Kaiakahinalii, the Flood, p. 20. 
Kai a Kahinalii, Sea of Kahinalaa, 

P- 37- 
kai-ula-a-Kane, the Red Sea of 

Kane, p. 24. 
kahili, the deep sea. 
kai waena, middle post (of a house), 

p. 223. 
Kakelekele, hydropathic cure, p. 126. 
kala, a species of fish. 
Ka lae ka ilio, the dog's forehead, 

p. 240. 
Ka lae ka laau, p. 240. 
Kalana-i hau-ola (Kalana with the 

life-giving dew), the primeval 

home of mankind, p. 17. 


kalo, the well-known vegetable of 
Hawaii, a species of Arum 
esculentum; Colocasia antiqu- 
orum, p. 131. 

kamaainas, original inhabitants, or 
long residents, p. 140. 

kamani tree, Calophyllum inophyl- 
lum, p. 72. 

kanaka, a man; the general name 
of men, women, and children 
of all classes, in distinction 
from animals. 

Kanaka-maoli, the people living on 
the mainland of Kane {Aina 
kumupuaa a Kane), p. 22. 

Kane, sunlight, one of the three 
supreme gods, p. 15. 

kanekoa, a deity, p. 184. 

Kane-laa-uli, the fallen chief, he 
who fell on account of the tree, 
p. 17. 

Kanikau, lamentation, p. 181. 

ka one lauena a Kane, p. 24. 

kapa, the cloth beaten from the 
bark of the paper mulberry, 
also from the bark of several 
other trees; hence, cloth of any 
kind; clothing generally. 

Kapapahanaumoku, the island bear- 
ing rock or stratum, p. 49. 

ka poe keokeo maoli, p. 22. 

kapu, sacred. 

kapu-hoano, sacred or holy days, 
p. 24. 

kapuku, the restoration to life of 
the dead, p. 151. 

Ka Punahou, the new spring, p. 37. 

Kauakiowao, Mountain Mist, p. 133. 




Kauawaahila, Waahila Rain, p. 133. 

kau i ka lele, placed on the altar, 
p. 209. 

ka-zvai-ola-loa-a-Kane , water of ever- 
lasting life, p. 23. 

kawelewele, guiding-ropes, p. 115. 

Keakeomilu, the liver of Milu, p. 56. 

keawemauhili, a deity, p. 184. 

Keinohoomanawanui, a sloven, one 
persistently unclean, p. 88. 

Ke po-lua ahi, the pit of fire, in- 
ferno, p. 18. 

Ke ue nei au ia olua, I grieve for 
you two, p. 41. 

ki, a plant having a saccharine root, 
the leaves of which are used 
for wrapping up bundles of 
food; the leaves are also used 
as food for cattle and for 

kihei, a mantle worn over the 

kilu, play, or game, p. 127. 

koa tree, Acacia koa. 

ko' a aina aumakua, fishing-station, 
p. 229. 

ko' a ia, fishing-station. 

ko' a ku-ula, a temple to Kocula, 
p. 227. 

ko' a lawaia, fishing-station, p. 222. 

koali, same as kowali. 

koas, fighting men, p. 157. 

koele, a small division of land; hence, 
a field planted by the tenants 
for a landlord; a garden be- 
longing to the chief, but culti- 
vated by his people, p. 260. 

kohola, a reef. 


kolea, plover, p. 71. 

kona, a severe storm that comes up 

from the equator, p. 183. 
konane, a game like checkers. 
Konohiki, feudal lord, a head man 

with others under him. 
kou, a large shade tree growing 

mostly near the sea, p. 161. 
kowali, convolvulus vine, a swing 

made of these vines, p. 46. 
Ku, Substance; one of the three 

supreme gods. 
ku, arise, stand, p. 24. 
kuaha, a stone-paved platform, p. 

Ku-Kaua-Kahi, a triad — the Fun- 
damental Supreme Unity, p. 


kukini, trained runner. 

kuko, to wish, to lust, p. 89. 

kukui tree, Aleurites molluccana, 

p. 88. 
Kulu-ipo, the fallen chief, he who 

fell on account of the tree, 

p. 17. 
kumukahi, east wind, p. 41. 
Kumu-uli, the fallen tree, he who 

fell on account of the tree, 

p. 17. 
kupa, native born person, p. 271. 
Kupapau Puupehe, Tomb of 

Puupehe, p. 181. 
kupua, demigod, p. 43. 
ku-ula, the fish god of Hawaiians. 

Lae, cape (of land), p. 148. 
la-i leaves, dracsena leaves. 
laka loa, very tame, p. 216. 




lalo puhaka, p. 16. 

lama, a forest tree (Maba sand- 

wicensis) which has very hard 

wood, p. 258. 
lana, floating, p. 20. 
lanai, arbor, p. 150. 
lau, four hundred, p. 190. 
lauele, a species of turnip. 
lazvalu, to cook meat on the coals 

wrapped in ki leaves, p. 147. 
leho, cowry shell. 
lehoula, a species of cowry of a red 

lehua tree, Metrosideros polymor- 

leiomano, shark's tooth weapon, 

p. 203. 
lets, wreaths. 

lele, a variety of banana, p. 150. 
lelekawa, to jump from a height into 

deep water, p. 256. 
lele kowali, swinging, p. 46. 
Lelepua, arrow flight, p. 88. 
lepo ula, red earth, of which the 

body of the first man was 

made, p. 16. 
lilo ai kona ola a make iho la, his life 

was taken, so death ensued, 

P- 55- 

limu, sea-moss, p. 242. 

Lo Aikanaka, the last of the man- 
eating chiefs. 

lomilomi, to rub or chafe the body. 

Lono, Sound; one of the three Su- 
preme gods. 

lua, killing by breaking the bones, 
p. 142. 

Lua Milu, the nether world, p. 46. 


luau, the kalo leaf; boiled herbs; 
young kalo leaves gathered 
and cooked for food. 

ma, a syllable signifying accom- 
panying, together, etc., p 54. 

maika, the name of a popular game; 
also, the stone used for rolling 
in that game, p. 157. 

mai ka po mai, from the time of 
night, darkness, chaos, p. 15. 

mai, komo mai, come, come in, p. 78. 

maile, Alyxia olivaeformis, p. 120; 
fine-leaved variety, Maile 
laulii, p. 95. 

makaha, floodgates, p. 142. 

makahelei, drawn eyes, p. 120. 

makahiki, year, p. 270. 

makai, seaward, p. 217. 

Makakehau, Misty Eyes, p. 182. 

malailua, goats without horns, such 
as were found on Mauna Loa, 
p. 24. 

malau, a place in the sea where the 
water is still and quiet; a place 
where the bait for the aku or 
bonito is found, p. 246. 

malos, girdles worn by the males. 

mamani, or mamane (Sopkora chry- 
sophylla), a hard wood tree, 

P- 173- 

manaiaakalani, p. 218. 

mana kupua, miraculous power, 

p. 215. 
manawa ole, in no time, p. no; in 

a short time, p. 113. 
manienie-akiaki, a medicinal grass 

of the olden time, p. 135. 




manini, a species of fish caught by- 
diving, p. 250. 

mano, dam, p. no; also the general 
name for shark. 

manohae, a ravenous shark, p. 259. 

maoli, a species of banana; the 
long, dark-colored plantain, p. 

mauka, inland. 

Milu, inferno. 

Moi, sovereign, p. 186. 

moi, a species of fish (Threadfin) of 
a white color. * 

moo, a general name for all lizards, 
a serpent. 

Moo-kapu, sacred lands, p. 210. 

mua, front; the house of a man's 
outfit (of several) that was 
Kapu to all women, even his 
wife, p. 258. 

Na akua aumakua ka foe kahuna 
kalai waa, ancestral gods of 
the canoe builders, p. 216. 

nae, the farther side, p. 1 16. 

na-u, jessamine, gardenia. 

noa, free of, or released from Kapu, 
P- 135- 

haehae ka manu, ke ale nei ka wax, 
the water is disturbed by 
action of the birds, p. 95. 

ohelo, a species of small reddish 
berry; the Hawaiian whortle- 
berry, p. 182. 

ohia, native apple; also, a forest tree 
of several varieties. 

ohia hemolele, the sacred apple-tree, 
p. 17. 


ohiki-makaloa, long-eyed sand-crabs, 

p. 70. 
ohua, the name given to the young 

of the manini fish. 
Oi-e, Most Excellent, p. 15. 
Oio, procession of ghosts, p. 48. 
oio, a species of fish (Bonefish). 
00, digger, p. 52. 
oopu, a species of small fish living 

in fresh water rivers and ponds. 
opae, a small fish; a shrimp; a 

opihi-koele, a species of shell-fish, 

p. 224. 
opihis, shell- fish, p. 70. 

pa, wall, p. 157. 

pa, pearl shell, p. 247. 

pa hi aku, pearl fish-hook. 

pahoa, stone weapon; dagger. 

pahoehoe, smooth, shining lava. 

pahonua, (more correctly puuhonua), 

place of refuge, p. 156. 
pahoola, a remnant, a healing piece, 

p. 56. 
pahu kaeke, a temple drum, p. 186. 
paiula, the royal red kapa of old, 

p. 145. 
pakai, an herb used for food in time 

of scarcity. 
pakui, a house joined to a house 

above — that is, a tower, p. 

i S 8. 
pala, ripe, soft; also, as a noun, a 

vegetable used as food in time 

of scarcity. 
pale, a director, p. 115. 
pali, precipice. 




Pali-uli (the blue mountain), the 

primeval home of mankind, 

p. 17. 
palolo, whitish clay, of which the 

head of the first man was 

made, p. 16. 
pani, a stoppage, a closing up, that 

which stops or closes. 
papa, a board; a term applied to 

anything of flat surface. 
papa holua, a flat sled, p. 40. 
pa-u, skirt. 

pihoihoi loa, greatly excited, p. 206. 
pili, the long, coarse grass used in 

thatching houses, p. 158. 
pipipi, a temporary shelter hut, p. 


po, night, chaos, pp. 15, 49. 

poe poi-uhane, spirit catchers, p. 

pohaku-ia, fish stone, p. 241. 

pot, the paste or pudding which was 
formerly the chief food of the 
Hawaiians, and still is so to 
a great extent. It is made of 
kalo, sweet potatoes, or bread- 
fruit, but mostly of kalo, by 
baking the above articles in an 
underground oven, and then 
peeling or pounding them, 
adding a little water; it is then 
left in a mass to ferment; after 
fermentation, it is again work- 
ed over with more water until 
it has the consistency of thick 
paste. It is eaten cold with 
the fingers. 

Po-ia-milu, inferno, p. 18. 


Po-kini-kini, inferno, p. 18. 

Po-kua-kini, inferno, p. 18. 

po o akua, a certain night of the 
month, p. 205. 

Po-papa-ia-owa, inferno, p. 18. 

Po-pau-ole, endless night, p. 18. 

popolo, a plant sometimes eaten in 
times of scarcity, also used as 
a medicine. 

pouhana, end post (of a house). 

poumanu, corner post (of a house), 
p. 210. 

pou manu, corner post (of a house), 
p. 223. 

pu, head or end of a canoe, or log, 
on which to fasten the rope to 
draw it down out of the river, 
p. 115. 

puaa, a hog, p. 16. 

puhala, the hala tree, p. 233. 

puhi, eel, sea snake. 

puholoholo, to cook (food) by roll- 
ing with hot stones in a cov- 
ered gourd, p. 135. 

puloulou, sign of kapu, p. 119. 

puni ka hiamoe, a trance or deep 
sleep, p. 81. 

puoa, a burial tower, p. 148. 

Reinga, the leaping place, p. 50. 

tapa, see Kapa, p. 144. 

Ua, rain, p. 169. 
ua haki ka pule, p. 208. 
ueue, bait, p. 225. 
uhae ia, p. 134. 




uhu, a species of fish about the size 

of the salmon, p. 241. 
uki, a plant or shrub sometimes 

used in thatching; a species of 

grass, p. 98. 
uku, a species of fish. 
Ulu kapu a Kane, the breadfruit 

tabooed for Kane, p. 17. 
uo, a part of the process of feather 

cloak making, p. 155. 
uwau, a species of bird; a kind of 


waa, canoe, p. 194. 
waa halau, see He waa halau Alii 
ka Moku. 


Wai a Hiku, water of Hiku, p. 44. 

Waiakoloa, p. 192. 

Wai nao, spittle, p. 16. 

waoke, or wauke, (Broussonetia 
papyrifera), the plant furnish- 
ing bark for the best Kapa, p. 79. 

Wawa ka Menehune i Puukapele, 
ma Kauai, puohu ka manu o 
ka loko o Kawainui ma Koo- 
laupoko, Oahu, the hum of the 
voices of the Menehunes at 
Puukapele, Kauai, startled the 
birds of the pond of Kawainui, 
at Koolaupoko, Oahu, p. III. 

wiliwili tree, Erythrina monosperma, 
p. 121. 



'T^ELONGS to the small and choice class of books 
i - "^ which were written for the mere joy of calling 
-■— * back days that are past, and with little thought 
that other eyes than those of the most intimate friends 
of the writer would ever read the pages in which he 
had set down the memories of his childhood and youth. 
In this instance the childhood and youth were passed 
among the most unusual surroundings, and the mem- 
ories are such as no one born of the present generation 
can ever hope to have. Dr. Lyman was born in Hilo 
in 1835, the child of missionary parents. With an 
artistic touch which has placed the sketches just pub- 
lished among 'the books which are books,' he has given 
an unequaled picture of a boyhood lived under tropical 
skies. As I read on and on through his delightful 
pages memories came back to me of three friends of 
my own childhood — 'Robinson Crusoe,' 'The Swiss 
Family Robinson/ and ' Mas term an Ready' — and I 
would be glad to know that all, old and young, who 
have enjoyed those immortal tales would take to their 
hearts this last idyl of an island." 

— Sara Andrew Shafer, in the N. Y. Times Saturday Review. 

" It is a delicious addition to the pleasanter, less serious literature 
about Hawaii. . . A record of the recollections of the first eighteen years 
of a boy's life, in Hawaii, where that life was ushered into being. They 
are told after the mellowing lapse of half a century, which has been very 
full of satisfying labors in an ennobling profession. . . Pure boyhood 
recollections, unadulterated by later visits to the scenes in which they 
had their birth." — The Hawaiian Star. 

" ' Hawaiian Yesterdays' is a book you will like to read. Whatever 
else it is, every page of it is in its own way literature. . . It is because of 
this characteristic, the perfect blending of memory and imagination, that 
these personal descriptive reminiscences of the childhood and early 
youth of the author in the Hawaiian Islands, in the times of those marvel- 
ous missionary ventures and achievements near the beginning of the 
last century, that this book takes its place as literature." — Chicago 
Evening Post. 

With numerous illustrations from photographs 

$2.00 net 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., Publishers 



"Keeping the more serious and sometimes tragic 
elements in the background, the book gives, in a most 
interesting way, the youthful impressions and occupa- 
tions and amusements of the writer. Indeed, not a 
few of his pages, in their graphic account of ingenious 
adaptation of means to ends, are agreeably reminiscent 
— unintentionally reminiscent, no doubt — of that classic 
of our childhood, 'The Swiss Family Robinson.' 
Could a reviewer bestow higher praise." — The Dial. 

" The author gives some delightful pictures of the 
islands, the people and the manner of living. There 
is a good deal of life and color and much interesting 
statement, particularly as to the life of the kings and 
queens who ruled like despots over the tiny kingdom." 
— Philadelphia Inquirer. 

"Evidently the author, even in boyhood, had a 
boundless love and admiration for the works of nature, 
for some of his descriptions of that wonderfully creviced 
and volcano-studded land are truly marvelous in their 
vivid and beautiful portrayal." — Oregon Journal. 

"If one desires to obtain an impression of the inside 
of the mission work which transformed the character 
of the Sandwich Islanders, as they used to be known, 
from heathenism to Christianity, he will find it in this 
interesting volume. It is a description of conditions 
in the Hawaiian Islands at the time when American 
missionaries were establishing their work." — The Stand- 

"The volume is unique in that it relates to a period 
about which American readers have known little." — 
Boston Transcript. 

With numerous illustrations from photographs 

$2.00 net 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., Publishers